File Name: physical education and obesity .zip
- Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity: Initiatives and Materials
- Fact Sheets and Brochures
- Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity
Richard Lowry, Sarah M. Lee, Janet E. Understanding correlates of physical activity PA can help inform and improve programs that promote PA among youth.
Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity: Initiatives and Materials
Telford was responsible for conceptualizing the project and for writing the initial and final manuscripts. Cunningham developed and carried out all statistical analyses, wrote the section on statistics, and played a leading role with R. Telford in the interpretation of the results, with assistance from R. Olive was responsible for characterizing the intervention.
Prosser and X. Jiang provided advice throughout the study. Telford was responsible for the physical activity and fitness tests and database management. All authors read, modified, and approved the final manuscript. We determined whether physical education PE taught by specialists contributed to academic development and prevention of obesity in elementary school children. Our 2-year longitudinal study involved boys and girls initially in grade 3 in Australia, all receiving minutes per week of PE.
Measurements included percentage of body fat measured by dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry and writing, numeracy, and reading proficiency by government tests.
There was no evidence of a reading effect. The attenuated age-related increases in percentage of body fat and enhanced numeracy development among elementary school children receiving PE from specialists provides support for the role of PE in both preventive medicine and academic development. The education and health of children are prominent considerations in the 21st century.
Schools have always had a traditional focus on increasing literacy and numeracy proficiency in children, but now they are increasingly being tasked with preventing obesity as well. Regular physical activity is directly implicated in the prevention of childhood obesity; there is evidence, however, that it may also benefit cognitive development. Physical education PE in schools is an ideal vehicle by which to promote physical activity in children because it is available to all children, and teachers have the opportunity to integrate it into the overall education process.
In government elementary primary schools in Australia, however, PE is usually conducted by generalist classroom teachers, many of whom have little PE teacher training, thereby diminishing its potential impact. In the United States, there is evidence of a decline in the time allocated to PE, 3 — 5 which may be related to the recent introduction of national literacy and numeracy assessments.
Recent publications summarizing the literature provide education authorities with little incentive to pay more attention to PE, either on academic grounds or in relation to prevention of childhood obesity. First, a comprehensive review, 7 although supportive of PE in general, could only conclude that allocating time to PE did not hinder classroom-based learning, a finding supported by a subsequent study incorporating a very large sample size.
We believe, however, that more positive conclusions may have emerged had all the studies involved in the review and meta-analysis met certain conditions. For example, successful PE requires trained and motivated teachers with well-designed programs, 10 a feature lacking in some studies.
Moreover, cross-sectional studies were frequently employed, which are susceptible to confounding factors such as socioeconomic status. There might have been stronger effects on academic achievement and body composition had all of the following conditions been met within a single study:. Complying with these conditions, we investigated whether PE delivered by visiting specialist PE teachers in elementary schools influenced the academic performance and body composition of mid-elementary school children.
We used a multilevel randomized quasi-experimental design involving an intervention conducted by visiting specialist teachers specialist-taught PE and a control group for which classroom teachers continued teaching commonly practiced PE programs common-practice PE. A control group without PE is neither practically nor ethically acceptable, so we calculated any effect of specialist-taught PE in reference to the effect of common-practice PE.
We recruited schools from an Australian education jurisdiction through invitations to the principals in Of 30 schools invited, 29 schools accepted. We randomly assigned 13 schools 32 classes to the specialist-taught PE group and 16 schools 36 classes to the common-practice PE group after ensuring that the following conditions were satisfied.
First, to match schools as well as possible in terms of the socioeconomic statuses of their suburbs, facilities, general administration, and teaching methods, we chose government-funded schools in outer-city suburbs of similar average family income as indicated by data supplied by the Australian Government Bureau of Statistics.
Second, we ensured that specialist-taught and common-practice schools were geographically far enough apart to minimize any chance of a specialist-taught PE influence on common-practice PE programs. Our measurements have a multilevel structure involving variation between schools, variation between children within schools, and variation within children. We chose to analyze change in the literacy and numeracy scores from grades 3 to 5 as the response variables, thus eliminating statistical complication arising from dependencies associated with the repeated-measures nature of these data.
We used linear mixed modeling to quantify and assess the effects of specialist-taught PE on the differences between grade 5 and grade 3 literacy and numeracy scores and percentages of body fat. These models included adjustment for any effect of variation in the initial grade 3 measurements on these differences. Other concomitant variables such as gender, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness CRF , and percentage of body fat were considered and assessed as possible confounders of group effects.
The physical activity and CRF variables were scaled by square roots to better meet linearity assumptions. As part of the characterization and comparison of the specialist-taught and common-practice programs, we compared data obtained from observations of specialist-taught and common-practice classes using a linear mixed-model analysis of the empirical logits of percentage values, adjusted for random school effects.
The participants were part of the Lifestyle of Our Kids study, as previously described. Responding to a questionnaire, teachers from all schools both specialist-taught and common-practice groups reported that children received an average of minutes per week of PE, including sport, over the 2 school years of the study, thereby satisfying local curriculum requirements.
In all of our schools, all PE was conducted within school hours. The specialist-taught intervention was conducted in 13 schools by 1 of 3 visiting PE teaching specialists and involved 2 classes of 45 to 50 minutes per week for 75 of the 80 weeks of school over the 2-year period. The general classroom teachers associated with the specialist-taught group conducted the remaining 50 to 60 minutes of PE in 2 or 3 extra sessions per week.
All 3 visiting specialist teachers were trained physical educators and received further training through the Bluearth Foundation, a registered charitable organization with the aim of improving health through physical activity.
We derived pertinent differentiating characteristics from class observations involving the SOFIT method 14 6 observers were involved, and observer agreement met the required standards , from questionnaires to teachers, and from curriculum framework manuals from both the Bluearth Foundation and the local education authority. There was a significant difference in the median percentage of class time devoted to vigorous physical activity, which represents an intensity of physical activity greater than that of normal walking The specialist-taught PE lessons devoted a significantly larger median percentage of lesson time to activities related to fitness, including strength, flexibility, and static and dynamic postural activities Common-practice fitness work mainly involved running activities, whereas specialist-taught PE emphasized strength, balance, and postural control.
The specialist teachers spent a greater median percentage of the lesson personally demonstrating and participating in fitness-related activities than did the common-practice teachers SOFIT observers also reported less variation in content and structure of the specialist-taught program, suggesting a more consistent approach to lesson planning and delivery by the specialist teachers.
We obtained further understanding of the differences between the specialist-taught and common-practice programs over the 2 years through our regular observations of lessons, discussions with the teachers, and reference to the respective teaching manuals. Differences included the following:. In providing moderate and vigorous physical activity, common-practice PE classes predominantly used walks, runs, and traditional games, whereas specialist teachers employed minor games and group activities.
In teaching skills, the common-practice method was to introduce the skills e. The specialist teachers but not the common-practice teachers emphasized development of posture, balance, and breathing control through a variety of yogalike static and dynamic activities, which often required muscular strength.
The specialist teachers always participated in activities, whereas common-practice teachers usually did not. The specialist teachers but not the common-practice teachers consistently encouraged individual and group discussions of game and skill development strategies and introduced quiet periods of reflection at the end of the lesson. Finally—in a finding of interest to educational authorities—the sustainability and economic viability of the specialist-taught PE program was enhanced by an ongoing course of professional development for the classroom teachers provided by the visiting specialists.
We measured children's height to the nearest 0. We used the meter multistage run, a well-established field test for children, to estimate CRF. The classroom teachers administered the literacy and numeracy tests in grades 3 and 5 and In grade 3, the tests were designed and assessed by the local governmenteducation authority; in grade 5, the tests were the responsibility of the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority in conjunction with the local jurisdiction.
All children undertook the same pairs of tests in grades 3 and 5. The children undertook the physical activity, fitness, and body composition assessments in the same order and in the same months in grades 3 and 5 in and , respectively.
The grade 3 assessments were finished 3 weeks before the start of the specialist-taught PE intervention, which began in April Because this study was part of a multidisciplinary study involving several areas of investigation, it was necessary to introduce the intervention 2 months before the first literacy and numeracy assessment in grade 3.
The intervention continued through all of the second assessments in grade 5. Table 2 summarizes raw data describing the participants' characteristics, together with summaries of the raw values of physical activity, CRF, percentage of body fat, and literacy and numeracy scores measured in grades 3 and 5, cross-classified by gender, year, and group. This number of repeated measures varied slightly in each measure.
Information on the methods of scaling of the literacy and numeracy scores is available from the Australian National Assessment Program Web site. As shown in Figure 1 , the mean increase in percentage of body fat in the specialist-taught group was 0. Adjustment for potential confounders, in this case for physical activity and CRF, did not account for the intervention effect.
Changes in percentage of body fat over 2 years grades 3—5 for the specialist-taught and the common-practice physical education groups, with adjustment for initial values: Canberra, Australia, and Data for boys and girls were combined. Bars represent means; lines represent SEs. As shown in Figure 2 , the average improvement in numeracy score over the 2 years was This difference represented 2. Changes in numeracy scores over 2 years grades 3—5 for the specialist-taught and the common-practice PE groups, with adjustment for initial values: Canberra, Australia, and The average improvement in writing score was The average improvement in reading score was 5.
Our data indicate that an appropriately designed and administered PE program can produce benefits for elementary school children, not only by attenuating increases in percentage of body fat typical of children in this age group but also by enhancing numeracy development. It is possible for an analysis of an intervention to demonstrate statistically significant effects, even though the small magnitudes of the changes raise doubt as to their practical effect in the community.
The practical significance of the Body fat increased 0. The practical significance of this finding is illustrated when we convert the percentage to actual grams of fat: approximately 0. With the average increases in fat mass over the 2 years being close to 2. Our data do not support the conclusion of the meta-analysis of Harris et al. However, our findings relating to body composition are consistent with a more recent study conducted over 1 year with Swiss children 18 that was not considered in the Harris et al.
The Swiss researchers, who also used a PE intervention conducted by PE specialists compared with control groups in which PE was taught only by classroom teachers, reported lower age-related increases in skinfold sum and BMI in the intervention group.
Notwithstanding the BMI attenuation observed in the Swiss study, a factor that may have confounded the conclusions of the previously cited meta-analysis 9 was the common use of BMI to represent change in body composition in the studies considered. BMI measures do not distinguish between changes in fat mass and lean body mass. Consequently, when BMI is used, a physical activity intervention—induced reduction in fat mass may be masked by a simultaneous increase in lean mass.
Moreover, BMI may pose further problems when used as a surrogate of adiposity in children, 19 as illustrated by its failure to detect any specialist-taught PE effect in our current work, despite a clear specialist-taught PE effect on percentage of body fat as shown by DXA. Irrespective of the quasi-experimental design of our study, we acknowledge the need to exercise caution regarding any assertions of causality.
Nevertheless, our data do promote certain insights that may encourage collegial debate, and we offer the following comments. Evidence derived from cross-sectional relationships has stimulated interest in physical activity, 20 CRF, 6 and adiposity 21 as potential influences on literacy and numeracy, and evidence from animal and human neuroimaging 1 has linked physical activity and CRF with cognitive function.
Indeed, prominent researchers in the field of neurobiology and exercise science have stated a consensus view that voluntary physical activity and exercise training can favorably influence brain plasticity by facilitating neurogenerative, neuroadaptive, and neuroprotective processes.
Fact Sheets and Brochures
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to an extent that it may have a negative effect on health. Obesity has individual, socioeconomic, and environmental causes, including diet, physical activity, automation , urbanization , genetic susceptibility , medications , mental disorders , economic policies , endocrine disorders , and exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Obesity prevention requires a complex approach, including interventions at community, family, and individual levels. Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing rates in adults and children. Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health. BMI is usually expressed in kilograms of weight per metre squared of height. The most commonly used definitions, established by the World Health Organization WHO in and published in , provide the values listed in the table.
Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity
Check it out! A healthful diet, regular physical activity, and achieving and maintaining a healthy weight also are paramount to managing health conditions so they do not worsen over time. Most Americans, however, do not eat a healthful diet and are not physically active at levels needed to maintain proper health. Adults in the U.
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Apunts is focused, on the one hand, on the impact of high sports performance on men and women and, especially, in the study of team sports and muscle and tendon injuries. On the other hand, on the behaviour to follow while practicing sport or physical activity during illnesses or in certain situations. All of which undergo an anonymous external peer review process.
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Он достаточно долго проработал бок о бок с директором и знал, что перерыв не относился к числу поощряемых им действий - особенно когда дело касалось ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Фонтейн заплатил за этого бегемота дешифровки два миллиарда и хотел, чтобы эти деньги окупились сполна. Каждая минута простоя ТРАНСТЕКСТА означала доллары, спущенные в канализацию. - Но, Мидж… - сказал Бринкерхофф.
Strength training is recommended as an adjunct to regular aerobic exercise but not as the primary mode of exercise for weight loss. Individuals.
Все тихо и чисто. Перед сердечным приступом мистер Танкадо не почувствовал ничего, кроме легкого укола. - Травматическая пуля, - задумчиво повторил Беккер. - Вот откуда шрам. - Весьма сомнительно, чтобы Танкадо связал свои ощущения с выстрелом. - И все же он отдал кольцо, - сказал Фонтейн. - Вы правы, сэр.
Директор в Южной Америке. - Извини. Я не могу этого сделать. - Скрестив на груди руки, он вышел из ее кабинета. Мидж горящими глазами смотрела ему вслед.
- Не думаю, что это ключ.