Peer To Peer Computing Applications Architecture Protocols And Challenges Pdf

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Peer-to-peer P2P computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers. Peers are equally privileged, equipotent participants in the application.

A Survey of Peer-to-Peer Network Security Issues

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Jaydip Sen. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. In an unstructured P2P network, there is no centralized administrative entity that controls the operations of the peers, and the resources i. With the advent of the Internet of Things IoT , the P2P networks have found increased interest in the research community since the search protocols for these networks can be gainfully utilized in the resource discovery process for the IoT applications.

However, there are several challenges in designing an efficient search protocol for the unstructured P2P networks since these networks suffer from problems such as fake content distribution, free riding, whitewashing, poor search scalability, lack of a robust trust model and the absence a of user privacy protection mechanism.

Moreover, the peers can join and leave the network frequently, which makes trust management and searching in these networks quite a challenging task.

In this chapter, a secure and efficient searching protocol for unstructured P2P networks is proposed that utilizes topology adaptation by constructing an overlay of trusted peers and increases the search efficiency by intelligently exploiting the formation of semantic community structures among the trustworthy peers.

It also guarantees that the privacy of the users and data in the network is protected. Extensive simulation results are presented and the performance of the protocol is also compared with those of some of the existing protocols to demonstrate its advantages. Jaydip Sen, for his valuable inputs, able guidance, encouragement, whole-hearted cooperation and constructive criticism throughout the duration of my project. I deeply express my sincere thanks to Mr.

I take this opportunity to thank all our lecturers who have directly or indirectly helped our project. I pay my respects and love to my parents and all other family members and friends for their love and encouragement throughout my career.

Last but not the least I express my thanks to my friends for their cooperation and support. Neighbor selection by peer P for forwarding the query string c2, f4. The community edges and the connectivity edges are drawn using solid and dotted lines respectively. The peers that receive the query for forwarding are shaded. The breadth first search BFS tree for the search initiated by peer 1. Topology adaptation based on outcome of the search in Fig. Malicious nodes are shaded in gray color.

Identity protection of the requesting peer i from the supplier peer k by use of trusted peer j. Protecting data handle using trusted node. Peer i and k are the requester and the supplier peer respectively.

Peer j is the trusted peer of the requester peer i AR for various percentages of malicious peers in the network. EAR of honest peers for various percentages of malicious peers in the network.

EAR for various percentages of malicious peers in the network with and without the trust management module. QMR for various percentages of malicious peers in the network. Closeness centrality for various percentages of malicious peers in the network. An illustrative content distribution among peers Simulation parameters The goal of a P2P system is to aggregate resources available at the edge of Internet and to share it co-operatively among the users.

The file sharing P2P systems have particularly become popular as a new paradigm for information exchange among large number of users in the Internet. These systems are more robust, scalable, fault-tolerant and they offer better availability of resources than the traditional systems based on the client- server model. Depending on the presence of a central server, the P2P systems can be classified as centralized or decentralized [22].

In the decentralized architecture, both the resource discovery and the resource download happen in a distributed manner. The decentralized P2P architectures may further be classified as structured or unstructured networks. In unstructured P2P networks, however, the placement of the contents is unrelated to the topologies of the networks. The unstructured P2P networks perform better than their structured counterparts in dynamic environments.

However, they need efficient search mechanisms and they also suffer from numerous problems such as: possibilities of fake content distribution, free riding peers who do not share, but consume resources , whitewashing peers who leave and rejoin the system in order to avoid penalties and the lack of scalability in searching. The malicious peers often use these networks to carry out content poisoning and to distribute harmful programs such as Trojan Horses and viruses [25]. Distributed reputation based trust management systems have been proposed by the researchers to provide protection against the malicious content distribution in a distributed environment [1].

HISTORY During the past few years, in the area of wireless communications and networking, a novel paradigm named the IoT which was first introduced by Kevin Ashton in the year , has gained increasingly more attention in the academia and industry [23]. By embedding short-range mobile transceivers into a wide array of additional gadgets and everyday items, enabling new forms of communication between people and things, and between things themselves, IoT would add a new dimension to the world of information and communication.

Unquestionably, the main strength of the IoT vision is the high impact it will have on several aspects of every-day life and behavior of potential users. From the point of view of a private user, the most obvious effects of the IoT will be visible in both working and domestic fields.

The real power of the IoT lies in the universal connectivity among all devices and objects. It should be possible for the service requestors to understand what the service providers have to offer by semantic modeling.

This is a key issue for stepping towards ubiquitous services, where the new or modified services may appear at any time, and towards device networks that are capable of dynamically adapting to the context changes as may be imposed by the application. This calls for a middleware which will interface between the devices and the applications. Since the devices need to communicate with each other, there is a need for a naming and addressing scheme, and a mechanism for search and discovery.

Moreover, since each device is mapped to an identity through naming and addressing , there are serious security and privacy concerns. In a massively distributed system like the IoT, several agent platforms will exist each having a set of agents running and registered with a directory facilitator DF.

Problem, however, arises when the agents from different platforms will have to search the remote DFs and interact with the agents located on the remote platforms.

In these scenarios, the agents will have to use resource discovery protocols which are similar to the file searching protocols in a purely unstructured P2P network. Hence, efficient searching in unstructured peer-to-peer network has a direct contextual relevance to the resource discovery in IoT applications.

We broadly divide these protocols into three categories: i general searching schemes, ii secure searching schemes, and iii privacy-preserving searching schemes. The primary objective of the schemes under the general searching category is to enhance the search efficiency - i.

The secure searching schemes attempt to incorporate security into the searching mechanisms by defending against various possible attacks on the peers and the overall network.

The privacy-preserving searching mechanisms protect peer i. In the following subsections, we briefly discuss some of the currently existing schemes under each of these three categories of search. Adamic et al. However, such strategies lack scalability and do not perform well in a network having large number of peers. Condie et al. The peers connect to those peers from whom they are most likely to download the authentic files [8].

The peers add or remove their neighbors based on local trust and connection trust which are decided based on the transactions history.. This punishment strategy is relaxed in the reciprocal capacity-based adaptive topology protocol RC-ATP , wherein a peer connects to others which have higher reciprocal capacities [29].

While the RC-ATP scheme provides better network connectivity than the APT scheme and it also reduces the cost due to the inauthentic downloads, it has a large overhead due to the topology adaptation. Kamvar et al. In [32], which is known as Gnutella v0. The peers are categorized into two types: the leaf-peer and the ultra-peer. The leaf-peers have connections with their respective ultra-peers, while the ultra-peers have connections with their own leaf-peers as well as with the other ultra-peers.

The leaf-peers can initiate lookup requests, receive lookup responses and respond to requests for which they have exact answers.

An ultra-peer forwards the lookup requests to other the ultra-peers or the leaf-peers to which the ultra-peer is connected, if it exactly knows which leaf-peer has answers to the requests. At the ultra-peer level of the hierarchy, a flooding mechanism is used for forwarding the lookup requests. Hsiao et al. In the proposed algorithm, each peer creates and maintains a constant number of overlay connections with other peers in a distributed manner.

Tang et al. In [37], a fully distributed protocol named distributed cycle minimization protocol DCMP has been presented that minimizes duplicate messages by eliminating any possible redundant cycles of the messages. Lin el al. Huang-Fu et al. Balfe et al. The authors have argued that the central problem in securing P2P network lie in the fact that these networks do not have any stable verifiable peer identity verification mechanism. This leads to a major conflict between the requirements of anonymity of the users to protect their privacy and an increasing need to provide robust access control, data integrity, confidentiality and accountability services.

The authors have shown how the trusted computing group TCG protocols for direct anonymous attestation DAA can be used to enforce the use of stable, platform- dependent pseudonyms so that spoofing attacks can be prevented. The proposed scheme also uses the DAA protocol to build entity authentication using pseudonyms for establishing secure communication channels between any given pair of peers.

A large number of studies have been carried out on the reputation and trust management in both the unstructured and the structured P2P networks.

The EigenTrust scheme proposed by Kamvar et al. The scheme utilizes a novel normalization process in which the trust ratings of a peer are averaged and normalized. However, the normalization may lead to partial loss of important information on the original distribution and variance of trust function. One easy way to preserve the privacy of the users in network communication is to deploy some fixed servers or proxies for this purpose.

For example, in the Publius system [31], the identity of a publisher is protected by encrypting the data communicated in the network, and managing the key distribution among k servers by using the mechanism of threshold cryptography [12][28].

Handbook of Peer-to-Peer Networking

Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Help expand a public dataset of research that support the SDGs. The next era will be the era of pervasive and mobile computing PMC. Ubiquitious computing, mobile computing, and last mile connectivity based applications will be the future of mobile applications. Peer-to-Peer P2P will play an important role in such applicatinos. P2P networking refers to the technology that enables two or more peers to collaborate spontaneously in an overlay network by using appropriate information and communication systems without the necessity for a central coordination. A P2P overlay network is a robust, distributedand fault-tolerant network architecture for sharing resources like CPU, memory and files.

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A Survey of Peer-to-Peer Network Security Issues

Decentralized Peer-to-Peer P2P offer both opportunities and threats. Most of the P2P networks operational today are voluntary file sharing applications. However, because of its open and decentralized nature, it has been very susceptible to malicious users sharing harmful content like viruses, trojans or probably just wasting valuable resources of the network.

Peer-to-Peer Networks: Architectures, Applications and Challenges

Social peer-to-peer processes are interactions with a peer-to-peer dynamic.

Table of Contents

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If you are using the internet regularly, it is highly unlikely that you have not encountered the term peer-to-peer or P2P. Whether it was mentioned in a news article, on TV, or in a conversation with a friend, who told you that he just downloaded the latest version of Linux through P2P, you may have stumbled upon this term. If you want to know what peer-to-peer networks are, what P2P is used for, and also see some peer-to-peer network examples, you should read this article:. Peer-to-peer, or P2P in its abbreviated form, refers to computer networks using a distributed architecture. In P2P networks, all the computers and devices that are part of them are referred to as peers, and they share and exchange workloads. Each peer in a peer-to-peer network is equal to the other peers.

Peer-to-peer networking, a disruptive technology for large scale distributed applications, has gained widespread attention due to the successes of peer-to-peer P2P content sharing, media streaming, and telephony applications. In addition, a large range of new applications are under development or being proposed. The underlying architectures share features including decentralization, end system resources, autonomy, virtualization, and self-organization. These features constitute the P2P paradigm. Trends in information and network technology such as increased performance and deployment of broadband networking, wireless networking, and mobile devices are synergistic with and reinforce the capabilities of this P2P paradigm. The Handbook of Peer-to-Peer Networking is dedicated to discussions on P2P networks and their applications, thus providing an exhaustive view of the state-of-the-art of the P2P networking field. Written by leading international experts, the volume contains fifty chapters dedicated to the following topics:.

The course is about distributed algorithms and systems that are fully decentralized, extremely scalable and fault tolerant. We will see techniques for organizing millions of independent components to perform useful functions, while avoiding bottlenecks or single points of failure.

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