Contract Specification And Quantity Survey Pdf

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Bills of Quantities prepared by our practice have the following uses, and these are borne in mind by the Quantity Surveyor during their preparation:. Each contractor tendering for the project is able to price the work on exactly the same information with a minimum of effort.


To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Laki Emmanuel Nelson. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. In the specification, the mixes of concrete, types of bricks and quantities of any other work are stated and methods of work are normally stated.

Formally contractors would simply study the drawings and specifications and would rely on past data to quote the contract sum. As competition grew keener, it became difficult to use it. It became necessary to take off measurement and prepare quantities of work involved.

Applying prices to these quantities, one would come up with the total estimate of the work. The quantities prepared were not only those of materials but specific elements in the structure like walls, roof, e.

Emergency on repair works where time is no available to allow the traditional process to be used. When new technology is being used iii. Contracts where high quality work is required iv. Z z i g w a M a r v i nContracts where cost is not important but where the client wants control over the methods of executing of projects v.

Where a special relationship exists between the employer and the building contractor Main Benefitsi. Great flexibility of design changes ii.

Easy client participation iii. Permits earlier Start of the project iv. Low risks to the contractor v. Full knowledge of the costs Dis-advantagesi. The client cannot forecast the total cost of the project with high degree of certainity ii.

No incentive for the contractor to reduce costs iii. Encourages wastes and extravagancy iv. High caliber client management skills are required v. Difficulty in evaluation of competitive tenders Types a Cost Plus PercentageIn this type of contract, the contractor charges a certain agreed percentage on the amount spent on the materials, labour and plants, for his profits and overheadsThe major disadvantage is that the greater the cost, the higher the fee to the contractor.

It encourages the contractor to carry out the work as quickly and cheaply as possible : z z i g w a b r e n d a g m a i l. Z z i g w a M a r v i n E m a i l Schedule contracts Types a Schedule of ratesHere, expected items of work to be done are listed without their quantities for the contractor to price. It is used where it is not possible to pre-determine the nature and full extent of the proposed work.

It is difficult for the contractors to price the schedule realistically in absence of quantities. It is commonly used on repair works, agent works, etc. Here a list of all materials to be used for the expected works is given and the contractor attaches the price on each. The contractor may then add a percentage of the total sum for the materials for hos labour, profit and overheads. The client does all the organization of the work and bears all the risks.

The client may employ a technical adviser Lump-Sum ContractsIn a lump sum fixed price contract, the contractor undertakes to carry-out the contract work for a fixed sum of money. The details of the contract are normally shown on the drawings and described in the specifications but no BOQ is supplied. It is often used where:The job is reasonably certain in nature and small in extent Contracts with quantitiesThese contracts are normally prepared for major works and they are based on BoQ.

The BoQs are prepared by the quantity surveyor on behalf of the client. Several copies of BoQs are repaired and sent out to the contractors who are interested in doing the work to enter in their prices or rate for the execution of the work. When the contract is signed, the BoQ and prices become part of the contract agreement and will be used in preparation of the final accountability and in the settlement of variations.

Z z i g w a M a r v i n E m a i l Examples Price In AdvanceUnder this type of contract, the contractor agrees to carry-out his obligation for the sum of money agreed upon in advance.

The contractor is responsible for all the labour, materials, and plants. This type of contract gives the client almost no control over the detail of methods of neither work programming nor expenditure. It is suitable for all projects, provided all planning and design work has been completed at tender stage.

The scheme is designed and a number of contractors are asked to submit in Lumpsum tenders based up on the pricing and totaling of the BOQ prepared on the behalf of the client Standard qualitative and quantitative information enables tenders to be compared on the price alone Is the most common type of contract used for all major construction projects Provides the client with good degree of control over financial aspects of the project It does not provide for contractor participation at the design stage The prices BOQ provides are the basis for valuation of variation Target Cost ContractsIn a target contract a basic fee is quoted as a percentage of the agreed target estimate obtained from a priced bill of quantities.

The target estimate may be adjusted for variation in the quantity and design and fluctuations in labour and material costs. The actual fee paid to the contractor is determined by increasing or reducing the basic fee by an agreed percentage of the savings or excess between the actual cost and adjusted target estimate, It discourages wastes There is an incentive to the contractor to complete the work speedily and economically as possible : z z i g w a b r e n d a g m a i l.

A quotation is a price that a firm charges to offer a good or service. Taking a decision to tenderAgainst corporate plan, senior managers will take the decision to bid for a specific contract. Decisions are taken;During the pre-selection stage After careful examination of the contract documents After the estimate has been prepared and tender is ready to submit Factors considered while taking the decision to tenderPotential contribution of the contract to the company's turnover in a particular sector; the overheads recovered and the anticipated profitsThe likely demands of the contract on the company's financial resources The company's resources available e.

The advertisement will give an outline detail of the type of work, the scale program and any other key features. Any interested firm applies for the tender documents and there are usually no formalities other than a little fee for the tender documents and discourage those who are not interested in the job or idle curiosity.

This system is commonly used by public bodies. It's usually stated in the advertisement and in the tender document that the employer does not bind himself to the lowest offer as the advertisement does not bid the employer in any way but it is merely an invitation to person or firms to make an offer and any offer made should be unconditionally accepted.

MeritsIt gives a chance of tendering to a firm which wishes to do so. Since there is no restriction, there can be no chance of favouritism. There are a large number of tenders to evaluate hence much time and money wasted. There is normally pressure to accept low tenders. There is a high cost on the contractor's side as he tenders for very many jobs and wins nothing or only one.

There is difficult in selecting the right firm. Selection should be made sufficiently early for firms to be asked whether they will be willing to tender at the required time. The criteria to be employed in drawing up the list of the selective firms will depend to some degree on the character of the project as well as its size, location. Also consider equipment available, standard of workmanship by firms, size of payroll, business record, and number of strikes within the company, financial stability, and real willingness to tender.

MeritsIt's possible to select the most competent firm. Since tenders are few, there is time and cost saving. DemeritsThe firms are sometimes overloaded as they may be reluctant to decline some tenders at the time they have a lot of jobs.

There is always reluctance to strike off incompetent firms from the list. Newly formed firms that are competent cannot tender for the job. There is always higher quotation than obtainable by open tendering as there is less competition.

This likely happens when specialist or nominated contractors e. MeritsIt is cheap to evaluate the tender. The firms with tested results are employed. DemeritsIt's usually expensive as a single contractor tenders. It's somewhat undesirable and perhaps an un health state of affairs and can be embarrassing is un satisfactory tender is received. It applies where there a series of similar schemes which are to be carried out over a period of time within the same area and permitting the phased utilization of the site organization and plant e.

It is useful for main contracts and can also secure the benefits of the increased size of order and production run for component contract and specialist site installation work which become subcontracts to a series of main contracts.

An example is where a contractor is invited to tender for one building e. MeritsIt encourages keener prices than would project for single project. Experience gained on the earlier project will be useful later on. For this contract, there is usually no time to wait for drawings and BoQ to be prepared.

One firm is selected and negotiated with. It offers a more rational price basis for the contracts perhaps stimulate design improvement. DemeritsIt's hard to satisfy the test of the public accountability. Suffers from higher cost due to lack of competition. Prequalification contractingIs where a selection of capable firms takes place before submission of the tenders or quotations. The same as for selective tendering. Z z i g w a M a r v i n DemeritsThe same as for selective tendering except leaving out of new firms.

Tender Documents Vs Contractual Documents4. General conditionsThese are laws defining the relationships in the contract I. Between the client and the contractor and other parties and how work will be executed. Instruction to tenderThis will include; Place, date, time by which tenders must be returned.

Methods of dealing with queries. How qualified tenders will be dealt with. Provision for site visits. Documents to be submitted with a tender.

Quantity Surveying and Contract Documentation

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Design of building is subject to functional, dimensional, technological and financial constraints. It requires a team, which brings together men of varied training and experience — Architects, Quantity Surveyors, Engineers and builders. The Quantity Surveyors is a key member of the construction team-the essential link between the client who commissions the building, Architects and Engineer who design it and the builders who builds it. He is the expert on construction costs and communication and his services are used from the inception of a project its completion. Experts cost advice is essential.

Quantities And Specification In Civil Engineering

A Quantity Surveyor QS is a construction industry professional with expert knowledge on construction costs and contracts. In some countries such as Canada, South Africa, Kenya and Mauritius, qualified quantity surveyors are known as Professional Quantity Surveyors, a title protected by law. Quantity surveyors are responsible for managing all aspects of the contractual and financial side of construction projects.

Contract administration 1. Specification and quantity survey 2. Contract documents 3. Site supervision 4. The parties may be natural persons or juristic persons.

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In short Specification is a statement of particular instructions of how to execute some task. In terms of an engineering project a specification contains a detailed written description of the quality of materials and workmanship necessary to complete the work. In the construction activity therefore, the scope of the work that is described in drawings includes such information as dimensions, form, or details while the specifications provide the description of the qualities of materials for construction.


CRTC believes that quantity surveying is an integral part of any design and construction stages. Whether it is during pre-construction stage or during the construction stage; our dedicated team of expert quantity surveyors works closely with the design and engineering team to find the optimum balance between cost, quality, value, and budget requirements of the client. For example, they consider alternative design approach, different materials that serve the same purpose, and different suppliers for the same material among other technics. Cost Control.

Estimating Costing Archives - The Constructor. Construction Technical specifications Civil Engineering. PDF Lecture Notes no.

Part of the Macmillan Building and Surveying Series book series. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Quantity Surveying Practice. Front Matter Pages i-xii.

ENCE | CONTRACTS, SPECIFICATIONS AND QUANTITY SURVEYING. Contracting process, elements of contracts, types of construction contracts, FIDIC​.

About this book

The article presents detailed analysis of the case of the renovation of one of historic tenement houses in Warsaw. Other, similar cases analyzed in less detail- were called verification cases. The aim of the article was, first of all, to present the scale of discrepancies between planned and performed amount of works and possibly precise indication of the reasons for these underestimations. The scope of the research included the inventory of the technical condition of selected building elements, the execution of bill of quantities, quantity survey and cost estimates of selected works. The conducted research shows that quantity survey of works subjected to analysis such as: repair of walls, chimneys and brick walls reached the value at least twice as large.

Apart from the theory, readers will be exposed to various problems that can also be encountered. Readers will gain an overall perspective of the different aspects of estimating, specification, costing, construction, and tendering. The author has included clues, which will show the reader how to first understand the problem and then how to proceed in solving it. The author addresses some important concepts in Civil Engineering such as construction management, cost specification, and estimation. The book contains twenty six chapters, three appendices, and a detailed index.

Specifications describe the nature and the class of the work, materials to be used in the work, workmanship etc. The cost of a work depends much on the specifications. Specifications should be clear.

At the conceptual stage such estimation is done on the basis of conceptual drawings or in case of any non-availability of such drawings, it is done on thumb-rule basis utilizing expertise and experience of specialists. At the execution stage the quantities are calculated based on the construction drawings. In general we can describe quantity survey as follows: 1. Description and preparation of the bill of quantities and its items required for the tender. Preparation of the site material, material types, and material distribution Accuracy ,thoroughness and ability to reconcile quantity and cost at every point of time are the important qualities of a Good Quantity Surveyor.

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5 Response
  1. Fleur L.

    Specifications: Types of specifications, Specification writing,. 2. Quantity surveying: material take off preparation and writing of bill of quantities,. 3. Project cost.

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    DEPARTEMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING. Contract, Specification and Quantity Survey. (CENG ). CHAPTER SPECIFICATION. October (NASIR B.)​.

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