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Basic electrical & electronics engineering notes, book, eBook for BTech First Year - Free Download
It is defined as the property of the material by which it opposes the flow of current through it. Capacitor is a storage element which can store and deliver energy in electrical field. Inductor is the element in which energy is stored in the form of electromagnetic field. Rs Rs. The current flowing through the electric current is directly proportional to the potential difference across the current and inversely proportional to the resistance of the current at constant temperature.
In an electric circuit, the movement of electronics i. The rate at which work is done is power. Power is obtained as a product of Voltage V and Current I. When resistors are connected in series.
Such that the same current passes through all of them then they are said to be series. R1 R2 R3. When resistor are connected in parallel. Such that the same voltage is applied to each, then they are said to be parallel.
R3 I3 I. The effective resistance of two resistors connected in series is Determine the value of two resistors. The sum of current flowing towards a function is equal to the current flowing away from it. Consider a function formed by 6 conductors. The current in these conductors are i1, i2,. It differs from the Branch Current method in that it does not use Kirchhoff's Current Law, and it is usually able to solve a circuit with less unknown variables and less simultaneous equations, which is especially nice if you're forced to solve without a calculator.
In our example circuit, the loop formed by B1, R1, and R2 will be the first while the loop formed by B2, R2, and R3 will be the second. The strangest part of the Mesh Current method is envisioning circulating currents in each of the loops.
If the assumed direction of a mesh current is wrong, the answer for that current will have a negative value. The next step is to label all voltage drop polarities across resistors according to the assumed directions of the mesh currents. Using Kirchhoff's Voltage Law, we can now step around each of these loops, generating equations representative of the component voltage drops and polarities. As with the Branch Current method, we will denote a resistor's voltage drop as the product of the resistance in ohms and its respective mesh current that quantity being unknown at this point.
Where two currents mesh together, we will write that term in the equation with resistor current being the sum of the two meshing currents. Tracing the left loop of the circuit, starting from the upper-left corner and moving counter-clockwise the choice of starting points and directions is ultimately irrelevant , counting polarity as if we had a voltmeter in hand, red lead on the point ahead and black lead on the point behind, we get this equation:.
Notice that the middle term of the equation uses the sum of mesh currents I1 and I2 as the current through resistor R2. This is because mesh currents I1 and I2 are going the same direction through R2, and thus complement each other. In actuality, I2 is flowing in a counter-clockwise direction at a value of positive 1 amp:.
As well as using Mesh Analysis to solve the currents flowing around complex circuits it is also possible to use Nodal Analysis methods too. Nodal Voltage Analysis complements Mesh Analysis in that it is equally powerful and based on the same concepts of matrix analysis. By adding together all these nodal voltage the net result will be equal to zero.
Then, if there are "N" nodes in the circuit there will be "N-1" independent nodal equations and these alone are sufficient to describe and hence solve the circuit. For "N" nodes, one node will be used as the reference node and all the other voltages will be referenced or measured with respect to this common node.
Identify all nodes. Choose a reference node. Identify it with reference ground symbol. A good choice is the node with the most branches, or a node which can immediately give you another node voltage e. Assign voltage variables to the other nodes these are node voltages.
Write a KCL equation for each node sum the currents leaving the node and set equal to zero. Solve the system of equations from step 4. There are a number of techniques that can be used: simple substitution, Cramer's rule, the adjoint matrix method, etc. The aim of nodal analysis is to determine the voltage at each node relative to the reference node or ground.
DC is the kind of electricity made by a battery with definite positive and negative terminals , or the kind of charge generated by rubbing certain types of materials against each other. Whereas the familiar battery symbol is used as a generic symbol for any DC voltage source, the circle with the wavy line inside is the generic symbol for any AC voltage source.
When an alternator produces AC voltage, the voltage switches polarity over time, but does so in a very particular manner. These waveforms are by no means the only kinds of waveforms in existence. They're simply a few that are common enough to have been given distinct names. Generally speaking, any waveshape bearing close resemblance to a perfect sine wave is termed sinusoidal, anything different being labeled as non-sinusoidal.
Being that the waveform of an AC voltage or current is crucial to its impact in a circuit, we need to be aware of the fact that AC waves come in a variety of shapes. Direct current DC circuits involve current flowing in one direction. In alternating current AC circuits, instead of a constant voltage supplied by a battery, the voltage oscillates in a sine wave pattern, varying with time as:.
In AC circuits we'll talk a lot about the phase of the current relative to the voltage. In a circuit which only involves resistors, the current and voltage are in phase with each other, which means that the peak voltage is reached at the same instant as peak current.
In circuits which have capacitors and inductors coils the phase relationships will be quite different. Consider now a circuit which has only a capacitor and an AC power source such as a wall outlet. A capacitor is a device for storing charging. We should follow the circuit through one cycle of the voltage to figure out what happens to the current. A capacitor in an AC circuit exhibits a kind of resistance called capacitive reactance, measured in ohms.
This depends on the frequency of the AC voltage, and is given by:. An inductor is simply a coil of wire often wrapped around a piece of ferromagnet. The overall resistance to the flow of current in an RLC circuit is known as the impedance, symbolized by Z. The impedance is found by combining the resistance, the capacitive reactance, and the inductive reactance. Unlike a simple series circuit with resistors, however, where the resistances are directly added, in an RLC circuit the resistance and reactances are added as vectors.
This is because of the phase relationships. In a circuit with just a resistor, voltage and current are in phase. When all three components are combined into one circuit, there has to be some compromise. To figure out the overall effective resistance, as well as to determine the phase between the voltage and current, the impedance is calculated like this.
The impedance, Z, is the sum of these vectors, and is given by:. The phase relationship between the current and voltage can be found from the vector diagram: its the angle between the impedance, Z, and the resistance, R.
The angle can be found from:. If the angle is positive, the voltage leads the current by that angle. Students sometimes become confused when computing power in threephase circuits. One reason for this confusion is that there are actually two formulas that can be used. In the second formula, the phase values of voltage and current are multiplied by 3.
The first formula is used more often because it is generally more convenient to obtain line values of voltage and current, which can be measured with a voltmeter and clamp-on ammeter. When we measure voltage and current in three-phase systems, we need to be specific as to where we're measuring. Line voltage refers to the amount of voltage measured between any two line conductors in a balanced three-phase system.
With the above circuit, the line voltage is roughly volts. Phase voltage refers to the voltage measured across any one component source winding or load impedance in a balanced three-phase source or load.
For the circuit shown above, the phase voltage is volts. The terms line current and phase current follow the same logic: the former referring to current through any one line conductor, and the latter to current through any one component.
Y-connected sources and loads always have line voltages greater than phase voltages, and line currents equal to phase currents. If the Y-connected source or load is balanced, the line voltage will be equal to the phase voltage times the square root of Take close notice of the polarity for each winding in Figure below. The instruments are classified according to the principles of operation.
Furthermore, each class may be subdivided according to the nature of the movable system and method by which the operating torque is produced. Specifically, the electromagnetic instruments are sub-classes as i moving-iron instruments. In moving —iron instruments the movable system consists of one or more pieces of specially-shaped soft iron, which are so pivoted as to be acted upon by the magnetic field produced by the current in coil.
There are two general types of moving-iron instruments namely i Repulsion or double iron type ii Attraction or single-iron type. The brief description of different components of a moving-iron instrument is given below. The general theory of moving-coil instruments may be dealt with considering a rectangular coil of turns, free to rotate about a vertical axis. A moving coil instrument consists basically of a permanent magnet to provide a magnetic field and a small lightweight coil is wound on a rectangular soft iron core that is free to rotate around its vertical axis.
When a current is passed through the coil windings, a torque is developed on the coil by the interaction of the magnetic field and the field set up by the current in the coil. The aluminum pointer attached to rotating coil and the pointer moves around the calibrated scale indicates the deflection of the coil.
To reduce parallax error a mirror is usually placed along with the scale. To use PMMC device as a meter, two problems must be solved.
GE6252 BEEE Notes, Basic Electrical Electronics Engg Lecture Handwritten Notes
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Simple problems, etc. UNIT-III Alternating Quantities : Principle of ac voltages, waveforms and basic definitions, root mean square and average values of alternating currents and voltage, form factor and peak factor, phasor representation of alternating quantities, the J operator and phasor algebra, analysis of ac circuits with single basic network element, single phase series circuits. Motors : Principle of operation of dc motors, types of DC Motors.
Basic Electrical and Electronics Engineering - BE8251
We have provided Basic Electrical and Electronics of B. From the following B. We provide B. Tech students free of cost and it can download easily and without registration need. At the end of the course, the student is expected to Know the fundamental of Electrical Engineering and practical and Practical implementation of fundamental theory concepts. Course Outcomes : 1. Students will learn strong basics of Electrical Engineering and practical implementation of Electrical fundamentals.
This section contains lecture notes from the Fall version of the course. These notes can also be found in the Video Lectures section, under the Related Resources tab for each video. Demonstration handouts can be found there as well.
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It is defined as the property of the material by which it opposes the flow of current through it. Capacitor is a storage element which can store and deliver energy in electrical field. Inductor is the element in which energy is stored in the form of electromagnetic field.
И в то же время после провала с Попрыгунчиком Стратмор испытывал колоссальный стресс. Это беспокоило Фонтейна: к коммандеру сходится множество нитей в агентстве, а директору нужно оберегать свое ведомство. Фонтейну нужен был кто-то способный наблюдать за Стратмором, следить, чтобы он не потерял почву под ногами и оставался абсолютно надежным, но это было не так-то. Стратмор - человек гордый и властный, наблюдение за ним следует организовать так, чтобы никоим образом не подорвать его авторитета. Из уважения к Стратмору Фонтейн решил заняться этим лично.
Он мысленно прорепетировал предстоящее убийство. Если у входа на площадку взять вправо, можно увидеть самый дальний левый угол площадки, даже еще не выйдя на .