Types Of Pollution And Its Effects And Its Causes Pdf

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You were introduced to wastes and pollutants in Study Session 1, where we discussed the interactions between humans and our environment.

Land Pollution: Causes, Effects, and Prevention

Pollution , also called environmental pollution , the addition of any substance solid , liquid , or gas or any form of energy such as heat , sound, or radioactivity to the environment at a rate faster than it can be dispersed, diluted, decomposed, recycled, or stored in some harmless form. The major kinds of pollution, usually classified by environment, are air pollution , water pollution , and land pollution. Modern society is also concerned about specific types of pollutants, such as noise pollution , light pollution , and plastic pollution.

Pollution of all kinds can have negative effects on the environment and wildlife and often impacts human health and well-being. Pollution occurs when an amount of any substance or any form of energy is put into the environment at a rate faster than it can be dispersed or safely stored. The term pollution can refer to both artificial and natural materials that are created, consumed, and discarded in an unsustainable manner.

Air pollution , water pollution , and land pollution are three major forms of environmental pollution. Pollution can also refer to excessive human activity, such as light and noise pollution , or to specific pollutants such as plastic or radioactive material.

Air pollution is the main cause of climate change. Human activities such as burning fossil fuels and mass deforestation lead to the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere , which traps heat inside the atmosphere through a process called the greenhouse effect.

This impacts climate patterns and sea levels around the world. Pollution can be reduced through processes such as recycling and the proper treatment of water and toxic waste. The reduction of corporate fossil fuel extraction is another way to counter air pollution. According to the Carbon Majors Report prepared by the Carbon Disclosure Project, more than 70 percent of greenhouse gas emissions comes from only companies.

Air pollution is estimated to kill 7 million people every year. Radioactive and toxic waste in water can cause many diseases, including fatal conditions such as typhoid fever and cholera. Consumption of contaminated water causes approximately , deaths every year. Although environmental pollution can be caused by natural events such as forest fires and active volcanoes , use of the word pollution generally implies that the contaminants have an anthropogenic source—that is, a source created by human activities.

Pollution has accompanied humankind ever since groups of people first congregated and remained for a long time in any one place. Indeed, ancient human settlements are frequently recognized by their wastes— shell mounds and rubble heaps, for instance. Pollution was not a serious problem as long as there was enough space available for each individual or group. However, with the establishment of permanent settlements by great numbers of people, pollution became a problem, and it has remained one ever since.

Cities of ancient times were often noxious places, fouled by human wastes and debris. Beginning about ce , the use of coal for fuel caused considerable air pollution, and the conversion of coal to coke for iron smelting beginning in the 17th century exacerbated the problem.

In Europe, from the Middle Ages well into the early modern era, unsanitary urban conditions favoured the outbreak of population-decimating epidemics of disease, from plague to cholera and typhoid fever.

Through the 19th century, water and air pollution and the accumulation of solid wastes were largely problems of congested urban areas. But, with the rapid spread of industrialization and the growth of the human population to unprecedented levels, pollution became a universal problem. By the middle of the 20th century, an awareness of the need to protect air, water, and land environments from pollution had developed among the general public.

In response, major pieces of environmental legislation, such as the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act ; United States , were passed in many countries to control and mitigate environmental pollution. The presence of environmental pollution raises the issue of pollution control. Great efforts are made to limit the release of harmful substances into the environment through air pollution control , wastewater treatment , solid-waste management , hazardous-waste management , and recycling.

Unfortunately, attempts at pollution control are often surpassed by the scale of the problem, especially in less-developed countries. Noxious levels of air pollution are common in many large cities, where particulates and gases from transportation, heating, and manufacturing accumulate and linger.

The problem of plastic pollution on land and in the oceans has only grown as the use of single-use plastics has burgeoned worldwide. In addition, greenhouse gas emissions, such as methane and carbon dioxide , continue to drive global warming and pose a great threat to biodiversity and public health. Pollution Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents.

Home Science Environment Pollution environment. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.

Jerry A. Alternative Title: environmental pollution. Top Questions. Learn more about the major kinds of pollution in this infographic explainer. The major kinds of pollution, usually classified by environment, are air pollution, water pollution, and land pollution.

Modern society is also concerned about specific types of pollutants, such as noise pollution, thermal pollution, light pollution, and plastic pollution. Learn about light pollution, including its effects on nature. Workers steaming blast rocks covered in crude oil leaking from the Exxon Valdez , an oil tanker that ran aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska, U. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Research has discovered how houseplants could potentially remove VOCs and other indoor air pollutants.

Upcycling plastic bags into battery parts. Plastic pollution, including many single-use plastics like bags and food packaging, in the ocean. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Pollution is a special case of habitat destruction; it is chemical destruction rather than the more obvious physical destruction. Pollution occurs in all habitats—land, sea, and fresh water—and in the atmosphere. Global warming, which is discussed separately below see Global change , is one consequence….

There is no plant community anywhere on Earth that has not felt the direct influence of the expansion of the human enterprise. The influence has had the form of direct intrusion through hunting and gathering, cultivation, or extensive harvest of trees or other plants…. The disastrous fog and attendant high levels of sulfur dioxide and particulate pollution and probably also sulfuric acid that occurred in London in the second week of December led to the deaths of more than 4, people during that week and the subsequent three….

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Study Session 7 Pollution: Types, Sources and Characteristics

Water pollution , the release of substances into subsurface groundwater or into lakes , streams, rivers , estuaries , and oceans to the point where the substances interfere with beneficial use of the water or with the natural functioning of ecosystems. In addition to the release of substances, such as chemicals or microorganisms, water pollution may also include the release of energy , in the form of radioactivity or heat , into bodies of water. Water pollution is the release of substances into bodies of water that makes water unsafe for human use and disrupts aquatic ecosystems. Water pollution can be caused by a plethora of different contaminants, including toxic waste , petroleum , and disease-causing microorganisms. Human activities that generate domestic sewage and toxic waste cause water pollution by contaminating water with disease-causing microorganisms and poisonous substances. Oil spills are another source of water pollution that have devastating impacts on surrounding ecosystems.

The planet keeps nudging us with increasingly extreme droughts, reminding us that water is life. It is an essential resource upon which all living beings depend and it is crucial to all social and economic development, as well as energy production and adaptation to climate change. Nevertheless, we are now facing a gigantic challenge. How do we stop contaminating our rivers, seas, oceans, canals, lakes and reservoirs? Water pollution is endangering the health of millions of people around the world. The waters of the River Ganges flow clear and clean through the Indian city of Rishikesh at the gateway to the Himalayas. In these mountains, nobody would guess that this water will be transformed into one of the most heavily polluted rivers in the world, with faecal bacteria levels up to 31 million per millilitres.

When many of us think of pollution, images of smoggy cities and litter-infested oceans come to mind. While littering and gasoline-fueled cars are a major contributor to pollution, there are many other influences that are important to be aware of. Essentially, pollution occurs when substances are introduced to the environment that have harmful effects, damaging the quality of land, water, and air. The cause is the accumulation of solid and liquid waste materials that contaminate groundwater and soil. These waste materials are often referred to as municipal solid waste MSW , which includes both hazardous and non-hazardous waste. When waste is deposited onto an area of land, the permeability of the soil formations below the waste can increase or reduce the risk of land pollution. The higher the permeability of the soil, the more likely that land pollution will occur.

Land Pollution: Causes, Effects, and Prevention

Pollution , also called environmental pollution , the addition of any substance solid , liquid , or gas or any form of energy such as heat , sound, or radioactivity to the environment at a rate faster than it can be dispersed, diluted, decomposed, recycled, or stored in some harmless form. The major kinds of pollution, usually classified by environment, are air pollution , water pollution , and land pollution. Modern society is also concerned about specific types of pollutants, such as noise pollution , light pollution , and plastic pollution. Pollution of all kinds can have negative effects on the environment and wildlife and often impacts human health and well-being.

Water pollution

Theory of Environmental Pollution is one among them. In this article, we have thoroughly discussed the types, causes and impacts of different pollutions affecting humankind. Kidney problems, irritation in eyes, nose and throat, asthma, hypertension and carcinogenic effects on lungs.

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Pollution touches all parts of the planet. It is affecting our health through the food we eat, the water we drink and the air we breathe. Approximately 19 million premature deaths are estimated to occur annually as a result of the way we use natural resources to support global production and consumption and which impact the environment.

You were introduced to wastes and pollutants in Study Session 1, where we discussed the interactions between humans and our environment. Pollution was defined as the introduction into the environment of substances liable to cause harm to humans and other living organisms. Many human activities pollute our environment, adversely affecting the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the soil in which we grow food. In this and the next study session we will look more closely at pollution.

You were introduced to wastes and pollutants in Study Session 1, where we discussed the interactions between humans and our environment. Pollution was defined as the introduction into the environment of substances liable to cause harm to humans and other living organisms. Many human activities pollute our environment, adversely affecting the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the soil in which we grow food. In this and the next study session we will look more closely at pollution.

5 Response
  1. Xarles P.

    pollution due to urbanization and other anthropogenic substances causes soil pollution. Industrial waste: lead, cadmium, mercury, alkalies, organic substances, and chemicals. Agricultural waste: fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, and manures. Discarded materials and radioactive elements and plastic bags.

  2. Subttenmade

    The main air pollutants are represented by gases forms, particles in suspension, different ionizing radiation and noise.

  3. Alexander W.

    interference with the ecological systems of which they form a part”. KINDS OF POLLUTION. Environmental pollution may broadly be classified into.

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