Thermal And Hydro Prime Movers Notes Pdf

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2 Eee Thermal and Hydro Prime Movers

Heat Engine: Heat Engine is a machine which derives heat energy from the combustion of fuels or from any source and converts this heat energy into mechanical energy. Classification of Heat Engines: 1. IC Engines: In this, combustion of fuel with oxygen of air occurs within the cylinder of the engine. These are used for driving Automobile, Prime movers for generation of Electrical Power. EC Engines: In this, the combustion of fuel takes place outside the cylinder as in case of steam engines where the heat of combustion is employed to generate which is used to move a piston in the cylinder.

These Engines are used for driving locomotives, generation of Electrical Power. Cheaper fuels can be used i. Starting torque is generally high. Due to external combustion, it is possible to have flexibility in arrangements. This units are self starting with working fluids. Overall efficiency is high.

Weight-power ratio is generally low. Greater mechanical simplicity. Low initial cost. These units are compact and requires less space. Applications of IC Engines: Used in 1. Road Vehicles Eg: Scooter, Buses 2. Air Crafts 3. Locomotives 4. Pumping Sets 5. Hospitals 6. According to the cycle of operations a. Two-Stroke Engine b. Four-Stroke Engine 2.

According to the cycle of combustion a. Otto cycle constant volume combustion b. Diesel cycle Engine Combustion at constant pressure c. Dual cycle combustion partly at constant pressure, partly at constant volume 3. According to number of cylinders a. Single cylinder b. According to arrangement of cylinders a. Horizontal Engine b. Vertical Engine c. V-type Engine d. Radial Engine 5. According to their uses a. Stationary Engine used in generators b. Portable Engine c. Marine Engine d. Auto-mobile Engine e.

Aero Engine 6. According to fuel used a. Oil Engine b. Petrol Engine c. Gas Engine d. Kerosene Engine 7. According to the method of Ignition a. According to the speed of Engine a. Low speed Engines b. Medium speed Engines c. High speed Engines 9. According to the method of cooling of Engine a. Air cooled Engines b. Water cooled Engines According to the method of Governing a. Quality governed Engines b.

Quantity governed Engines c. Hit and miss governed Engines According to the Valve Arrangement a. Lower head type Engines b. Overhead valve Engines c. T-Head type Engines d. F-Head type Engines. Basic Idea of IC Engines:- The cylinder which is closed at one end is filled with air-fuel mixture As the crank shaft rotates it pushes the piston upwards as the piston is forced up it compresses the mixture in the top of the cylinder.

The flywheel which is mounted on the crank shaft stores the energy and keeps the crank turning steady. The main function of the cylinder is to guide the piston. At the upper end cylinder and cylinder head are connected at the bottom cylinder and crank case are connected.

Due to high combustion of fuel high temperatures and high pressures are formed ,so it must be high grade cast iron. It is usually made by casting process. In order to reduce the weight of the engine aluminium alloys are also used Cylinder head: The top end of the cylinder is closed by means of removable cylinder head.

It consists of two valves one for intake and other for exhaust spark plug, fuel inserter etc. It is made up of cast iron and aluminium alloys by casting and forging process.

Piston: A piston is fitted in the cylinder in order to receive the gas pressure and transmit the thrust to the connecting rod. The piston is made by aluminum and cast iron. Piston Rings: Piston rings are located between piston and cylinder. They are generally made up of cast iron. There are two types of ring fitted on the circumferential groove provided on outer surface of piston. So these rings removes the excessive lubricating oil from cylinder into crank case.

Connecting Rod: Connecting rod transmits the force from piston to crank shaft. It helps in converting reciprocating motion to rotary motion. It has two ends one is small end and other is big end.

The smaller end is connected to piston by gudgeon pin. The big end is connected with crank shaft. Crank Shaft: receives the thrust from piston to crank shaft and convert reciprocating motion of piston into rotary motion. Cam shaft: It is used in I. C engines to control opening and closing of valves at proper timing. It is driven by the timing belt which drives the crank shaft.

Cam shaft rotates half of the speed of the crank shaft. Flywheel: It is used to control the cyclic variation of engine power produced. It is made up of cast iron. It is mounted on crank shaft. Governor: is a device used to regulate the speed of the engine by operating the supply valve of the fluid according to load requirement in order to maintain constant speed. When the load on the engine increases it decreases the speed of the engine. In order to maintain constant speed additional amount of may be sent to the cylinder by operating the supply valve and vice versa.

Flywheel Governor used because of variation of speed due to used because of variation of speed due to variation in the output torque of engine variation in the load on the engine. Limits the inertiable fluctuation of speed Controls the mean speed of engine by during each cycle which arises due to varying the fuel supply which arises due fluctuation of turning moment on crank to variation of load. Stores excess of rotational energy from When load on the engine increases, speed the power stroke and supply back during decreases, it increases the flow of fuel to non- power strokes of the cycle.

It controls the speed for one cycle only so It maintains constant mean speed over a it is continuous. It had got limiting upper and lower position beyond which it cannot move and reversal of motion takes places at these limiting position.

Basic Layout and Working of a Thermal Power Plant

Heat Engine: Heat Engine is a machine which derives heat energy from the combustion of fuels or from any source and converts this heat energy into mechanical energy. Classification of Heat Engines: 1. IC Engines: In this, combustion of fuel with oxygen of air occurs within the cylinder of the engine. These are used for driving Automobile, Prime movers for generation of Electrical Power. EC Engines: In this, the combustion of fuel takes place outside the cylinder as in case of steam engines where the heat of combustion is employed to generate which is used to move a piston in the cylinder.

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Download PDF of Thermal and hydro prime movers Material offline reading, offline notes, free download in App, Engineering Class handwritten notes, exam.


Thermal and Hydro Prime Movers Pdf Free Download

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What is a Prime Mover? Where did the Phrase Prime Mover come From?

The unique feature of our civilization, which makes it different from all others, is the wide use of mechanical power. Earlier, animals had been trained to help us for various purposes such as for travelling and for agriculture usage. After this, a revolution in wind power came into play. For example, ships used wind power to travel. After some time, the use of power from running streams started. When we learned to convert the heat of chemical reactions into mechanical energy, it revolutionized the world.

Course Objectives: To make the student understand the types of prime movers, which can be connected to generators for power production and should obtain the skills of performing the necessary calculations with respect to the functioning of the prime movers. Objectives: To make the student learn about the constructional features, operational details of various types of internal combustion engines through the details of several engine systems and the basic air standard cycles, that govern the engines. Further, the student shall be able to calculate the performance of different types of internal combustion engines. C Engines: Classification, working principles — valve and port timing diagrams — air standard cycles — Engine systems line fuel injection, carburetion, ignition, cooling and lubrication — Engine performance evaluation. Objectives: To train the student in the aspects of steam formation and its utilities through the standard steam data tables and charts. To make the student correlate between the air standard cycles and the actual cycles that govern the steam turbines.

Otto, Diesel, Dual, Brayton cycles, Calculation of mean effective pressure, and air standard efficiency — Comparison of cycles. Classification — Components and their function. Valve timing diagram and port timing diagram — actual and theoretical p-V diagram of four stroke and two stroke engines. Simple and complete Carburettor. MPFI, Diesel pump and injector system. Lubrication and Cooling systems. Performance calculation.

Thermal and Hydro Prime Movers Lecture Notes Jntuk R16 EEE 2-1

Typical layout and working of a Thermal Power Plant

The survey Form EIA collects detailed electric power data -- monthly and annually -- on electricity generation, fuel consumption, fossil fuel stocks, and receipts at the power plant and prime mover level. Specific survey information provided:. A subset of plants, steam-electric plants 10 MW and above, also provides boiler level and generator level data. Data for utility plants are available from , and for nonutility plants from Beginning with January data collection, the EIA was used to collect data from the combined heat and power plant cogeneration segment of the nonutility sector; also as of , nonutilities filed the annual data for nonutility source and disposition of electricity. Fuel receipts and costs data prior to Power plant data prior to are separate files for utility and nonutility plants.

Objectives: to create the coed find out about the constructional options, operational details of assorted kinds of combustion engines through the main points of many engine systems and therefore the basic air customary cycles, that govern the engines. Further, the coed shall be able to calculate the performance of various kinds of combustion engines. C Engines: Classification, operating principles — valve and port temporal arrangement diagrams — air customary cycles — Engine systems line fuel injection system, carburetion, ignition, cooling and lubrication — Engine performance analysis. Objectives: to coach the coed within the aspects of steam formation and its utilities through the quality steam knowledge tables and charts. Analysis of assorted physical science Processes underneath gone Steam. Objectives: To impart the information of turbine fundamentals, the governing cycles and therefore the ways to boost the potency of gas turbines. Gas Turbines: easy turbine plant-ideal cycle, closed cycle -open cycle-.

Thermal and hydro prime movers Material pdf download - LectureNotes for free

Честь. Страна. Любовь. Дэвид Беккер должен был погибнуть за первое, второе и третье.

И он знал про них. ГЛАВА 126 - Одна минута. Джабба посмотрел на ВР.

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