File Name: optical instruments and their applications .zip
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3: Optical Instruments
An optical instrument or " optic " for short is a device that processes light waves or photons , either to enhance an image for viewing or to analyze and determine their characteristic properties. Common examples include periscopes , microscopes , telescopes , and cameras. The first optical instruments were telescopes used for magnification of distant images, and microscopes used for magnifying very tiny images. Since the days of Galileo and Van Leeuwenhoek , these instruments have been greatly improved and extended into other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The binocular device is a generally compact instrument for both eyes designed for mobile use. A camera could be considered a type of optical instrument, with the pinhole camera and camera obscura being very simple examples of such devices. Another class of optical instrument is used to analyze the properties of light or optical materials.
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A magnifying glass is a convex lens that lets the observer see a larger image of the object being observed. A magnifying glass is a convex lens that lets the observer see a larger image of the object under observation. The lens is usually mounted in a frame with a handle, as shown below. Magnifying Glass : A magnifying glass is a convex lens that lets the observer see a larger image of the object under observation. When not using the lens, the user would typically bring the object as close to the eye as possible without it becoming blurry. This point, known as the near point, varies with age.
This book contains 11 chapters that complete the series of 50 chapters, which provide information on many aspects of applied optics. The opening chapters of this book deal with the principles and properties of dispersing prisms and diffraction gratings. The subsequent chapters describe the principles and polarizing properties of spectrographs, monochromators, and spectrophotometers. Other chapters are devoted to the mode of operation and properties of other optical instruments, such as colorimeters, astronomical telescopes, and military, surveying, tracking, and medical optical instruments. The final chapters examine the fundamentals and applications of ophthalmic instruments and motion picture equipment. This text will be of value to optical scientists, engineers, and researchers. Introduction II.
PDF | We discuss some of the details of the optical technology that was known at artists began using optical devices as aids for creating their work early in the for solar cell as well as opto-electronic display applications.
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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Modern manufacturing is being revolutionized by the use of optics, which can both improve current manufacturing capabilities and enable new ones. Light can be used to process or probe materials remotely, even through windows isolating harsh or vacuum environments. With no surface contact, there is no contamination of the process by the probe beam and no wear of tool edges.
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The title of this chapter is to some extent false advertising, because the instruments described are the instruments of first-year optics courses, not optical instruments of the real world of optical technology.