Technology And Society Social Networks Power And Inequality Pdf

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Social status

Social status is the level of social value a person is considered to hold. Status is based in widely shared beliefs about who members of a society think holds comparatively more or less social value, in other words, who they believe is better in terms of competence or moral traits. As such, people use status hierarchies to allocate resources, leadership positions, and other forms of power. In doing so, these shared cultural beliefs make unequal distributions of resources and power appear natural and fair, supporting systems of social stratification.

The sociologist Max Weber outlined three central aspects of stratification in a society: class, status, and power. In his scheme, which remains influential today, people possess status in the sense of honor because they belong to specific groups with unique lifestyles and privileges. Some writers have also referred to a socially valued role or category a person occupies as a "status" e. Status hierarchies depend primarily on the possession and use of status symbols.

These are cues or characteristics that people in a society agree indicate how much status a person holds and how they should be treated. Other status symbols include wealth and its display through conspicuous consumption.

Several studies document that being popular [13] or demonstrating dominance over peers [14] increases a person's status. Network studies of firms also find that organizations derive their own status in market contexts from the status of their affiliates, like corporate partners and investors.

Because status is always relative to other people, that means a person can enter many situations throughout their life or even a single day in which they hold high, equal, or low-status depending on who is around them. For instance, a doctor holds high-status when interacting with a patient, equal status in a meeting with fellow doctors, and low-status when meeting with their hospital's chief of medicine.

A person can also be a 'big fish in a small pond' such that they are higher-status than everyone else in their organization, but low or equal-status relative to professionals in their entire field. Some perspectives on status emphasize its relatively fixed and fluid aspects. Meanwhile, achieved statuses are akin to one's educational credentials or occupation: these things require a person to exercise effort and often undergo years of training. The term master status has been used to describe the status most important for determining a person's position in a given context, like possessing a mental illness.

Some theories however, like status characteristics theory , eschew the idea of a master status in the sense of a social attribute that has an out-sized effect on one's position across all contexts. As such, research in this program has yet to identify a social characteristic that operates like a robust trans-situational master status. Although a person's status does not always correspond to merit or actual ability, it does allow the members of a group to coordinate their actions and quickly agree on who among them should be listened to.

When actual ability does correspond to status, then status hierarchies can be especially useful. They allow leaders to emerge who set informed precedents and influence less knowledgeable group members, allowing groups to use the shared information of their group to make more correct decisions.

In addition, there are large material and immaterial rewards for contributing to groups, which incentivize highly capable members to contribute in the first place. One series of vignette studies showed that even when research participants learned that a gift recipient did not prefer the highest status option before the participant, the participants still preferred to give gifts that were socially recognized as high-status because it meant their intentions would be understood as considerate.

Whether formal or informal, status hierarchies are present in all societies. Status often comes with attendant rights, duties, and lifestyle practices. In modern societies, occupation is usually thought of as the main determinant of status [27] , but other memberships or affiliations such as ethnic group , religion , gender , voluntary associations, fandom , hobby can have an influence.

Consequently, achieved status implies that social mobility in a society is possible, as opposed to caste systems characterized by immobility based solely on ascribed status. In pre-modern societies, status differentiation is widely varied.

In some cases it can be quite rigid, such as with the Indian caste system. In these cases, status is limited to specific personal relationships. For example, a Khoisan man is expected to take his wife's mother quite seriously a non-joking relationship , although the mother-in-law has no special "status" over anyone except her son-in-law—and only then in specific contexts. Status maintains and stabilizes social stratification.

Mere inequality in resources and privileges is likely to be perceived as unfair and thus prompt retaliation and resistance from those of lower status, but if some individuals are seen as better than others i. Social dominance hierarchy emerges from individual survival-seeking behaviors.

Status inconsistency is a situation where an individual's social positions have both positive and negative influences on his or her social status.

For example, a teacher may have a positive societal image respect, prestige which increases their status but may earn little money , which simultaneously decreases their status. In task-focused interpersonal encounters, people unconsciously combine this information to develop impressions of their own and others' relative rank.

Status is one of the major components of social stratification, the way people are hierarchically placed in a society. The members of a group with similar status interact mainly within their own group and to a lesser degree with those of higher or lower status in a recognized system of social stratification. The German sociologist Max Weber developed a theory proposing that stratification is based on three factors that have become known as "the three p's of stratification": property , prestige and power.

He claimed that social stratification is a result of the interaction of wealth class , prestige status or in German Stand and power party. Max Weber developed various ways that societies are organized in stratification systems.

These ways are social status, class power and political power. There has been discussion about how Weber's three dimensions of stratification are more useful for specifying social inequality than more traditional terms like Socioeconomic Status.

Max Weber developed the idea of "status group" which is a translation of the German Stand pl. Status groups are communities that are based on ideas of lifestyles and the honor the status group both asserts, and is given by others. Status groups exist in the context of beliefs about relative prestige, privilege, and honor and can be of both a positive and negative sort. People in status groups are only supposed to engage with people of like status, and in particular, marriage inside or outside the group is discouraged.

Status groups can include professions, club-like organizations, ethnicity, race, and other groups for which pattern association. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Position within social structure. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Historical perspectives. Conflict theory Structural functionalism Positivism Social constructionism. Main article: Status inconsistency. Main article: Social stratification. Main article: Three-component theory of stratification. Main article: Status group. Society portal. Achieved status Ascribed status Dominance hierarchy Economic mobility Expressions of dominance Occupational prestige Power social and political Ranked society Social class Social inequality Social stratification Socioeconomic status Sociometric status Status attainment Status set Status symbol.

Annual Review of Sociology. A Review of the Empirical Literature". Psychological Bulletin. Social Cognition. Social Forces. Gerth and C. Wright Mills eds. New York: Oxford University. American Sociological Review.

Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. Cambridge University Press. Evolutionary Perspectives on Social Psychology. Evolutionary Psychology: — Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Sociological Science. New York: Oxford University Press. The Study of Man. Appleton Century Crofts. Cengage Learning. Accessed 20 September Social Psychology Quarterly. Rationality and Society. The American occupational structure.

Otis Dudley Duncan, Andrea Tyree. New York: Free Press. Journal of Psychoneuroendocrinology. Archived from the original on 6 May Retrieved 8 May Beitrage zurSozialpsycholgie des Haushuhns. Zeitschrift Psychologie — Archived from the original on Retrieved Demonic males.

Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Seyfarth, R.

Technology and Society: Social Networks, Power, and Inequality

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Social status is the level of social value a person is considered to hold. Status is based in widely shared beliefs about who members of a society think holds comparatively more or less social value, in other words, who they believe is better in terms of competence or moral traits. As such, people use status hierarchies to allocate resources, leadership positions, and other forms of power. In doing so, these shared cultural beliefs make unequal distributions of resources and power appear natural and fair, supporting systems of social stratification. The sociologist Max Weber outlined three central aspects of stratification in a society: class, status, and power. In his scheme, which remains influential today, people possess status in the sense of honor because they belong to specific groups with unique lifestyles and privileges.

The concept of the network society is closely associated with interpretation of the social implications of globalisation and the role of electronic communications technologies in society. The definition of a network society given by the foremost theorist of the concept, Manuel Castells p. According to Castells, three processes led to the emergence of this new social structure in the late 20th century:. Castells' analysis of the significance of these three processes which can be followed in detail in the Key Reading by Castells for this section provides a broad historical context for the development paradigms we will discuss in the next section. The significance of economic restructuring is that it created the conditions for the emergence of the open market development paradigm, weakening the nation state and deepening processes of social inclusion and exclusion between and within countries. The cultural movements were significant because they created the conditions for emergence of an opposing 'human-capabilities centred' development paradigm that focuses on human rights. The values of individual autonomy and freedom espoused by this cultural change shaped the open network structure for communication.

Quan-Haase, Technology & Society: Social Networks, Power, and Inequality 3e

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From small communities to entire nations and society at large, inequality in wealth, social status, and power is one of the most pervasive and tenacious features of the social world. What causes inequality to emerge and persist? In this study, we investigate how the structure and rules of our interactions can increase inequality in social groups. Specifically, we look into the effects of four structural conditions—network structure, network fluidity, reputation tracking, and punishment institutions—on the distribution of earnings in network cooperation games. We analyze 33 experiments comprising 96 experimental conditions altogether.

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Quan-Haase, Technology & Society: Social Networks, Power, and Inequality 3e

This timely text examines the places where technology and society intersect, connecting the reality of our technological age to issues of social networks, communication, work, power, and inequality.

ГЛАВА 88 Фара веспы отбрасывала контрастные тени на стены по обе стороны от узкой дорожки. Переключая передачи, Беккер мчался вперед между белокаменными стенами. Улочка имела множество поворотов и тупиков, и он быстро потерял направление. Он поднял вверх голову, надеясь увидеть Гиральду, но окружившие его со всех сторон стены были так высоки, что ему не удалось увидеть ничего, кроме тоненькой полоски начинающего светлеть неба. Беккер подумал, где может быть человек в очках в тонкой металлической оправе.

 Какое отношение это имеет к директорскому кабинету. Мидж повернулась на вращающемся стуле. - Такой список выдает только принтер Фонтейна.

Ты лжешь, - ответил ему внутренний голос. Да, это .

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  1. Reggie P.

    This timely text examines the places where technology and society intersect, connecting the reality of our technological age to issues of social networks.

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