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The Federal-Aid Highway Act of authorized positive action on the problem of highway safety.
- National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act
- Motor-Vehicle Safety: A 20th Century Public Health Achievement
- National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966
- National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act
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National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act
The National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act was enacted in the United States in to empower the federal government to set and administer new safety standards for motor vehicles and road traffic safety.
The Act was the first mandatory federal safety standards for motor vehicles. The Act was one of a number of initiatives by the government in response to increasing number of cars and associated fatalities and injuries on the road following a period when the number of people killed on the road had increased 6-fold and the number of vehicles was up fold since The reduction of the rate of death attributable to motor-vehicle crashes in the United States represents the successful public health response to a great technologic advance of the 20th century—the motorization of America.
Systematic motor-vehicle safety efforts began during the s. He defined interactions between host human , agent motor vehicle , and environmental highway factors before, during, and after crashes resulting in injuries. Many changes in both vehicle and highway design followed this mandate. Vehicles agent of injury were built with new safety features, including head rests, energy-absorbing steering wheels, shatter-resistant windshields, and safety belts   Roads environment were improved by better delineation of curves edge and center line stripes and reflectors , use of breakaway sign and utility poles, improved illumination, addition of barriers separating oncoming traffic lanes, and guardrails.
By , motor-vehicle-related death rates were decreasing by both the public health measure deaths per , population and the traffic safety indicator deaths per VMT. Changes in driver and passenger host behavior also have reduced motor-vehicle crashes and injuries. Enactment and enforcement of traffic safety laws, reinforced by public education , have led to safer behavior choices.
Examples include enforcement of laws against driving while intoxicated DWI and underage drinking, and enforcement of seat belt , child safety seat , and motorcycle helmet use laws. Government and community recognition of the need for motor-vehicle safety prompted initiation of programs by federal and state governments, academic institutions, community-based organizations, and industry. Department of Transportation have provided national leadership for traffic and highway safety efforts since the s.
Citizen and community-based advocacy groups have played important prevention roles in areas such as drinking and driving and child-occupant protection. Safety belt use began to increase following enactment of the first state mandatory-use laws in Primary laws which allow police to stop vehicles simply because occupants are not wearing safety belts are more effective than secondary laws which require that a vehicle be stopped for some other traffic violation.
Child-safety and booster seats: All states had passed child passenger protection laws, but these varied widely in age and size requirements and the penalties imposed for noncompliance. Traffic Injury Prevention . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The New York Times. Retrieved April 27, Few drivers could imagine owning a car these days that did not come with airbags, antilock brakes and seatbelts. But 50 years ago motorists went without such basic safety features.
It accused automakers of failing to make cars as safe as possible. Less than a year after the book was published, a balky Congress created the federal safety agency that became the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration — an agency whose stated mission is to save lives, prevent injuries and reduce crashes In September — about 10 months after the book was published — President Lyndon B.
Johnson signed the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, requiring the adoption of new or upgraded vehicle safety standards, and creating an agency to enforce them and supervise safety recalls.
In Kutler, Stanley I. Dictionary of American History. Charles Scribner's Sons. Signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson on 9 September , this act created the first mandatory federal safety standards for motor vehicles.
Unsafe at Any Speed, investigative report on U. Unsafe at Any Speed: The Designed-in Dangers of the American Automobile excoriated the American automotive industry, based in Detroit, for its prioritization of style and design over consumer safety. The Unknown Iacocca. William Morrow and Company. Nader, another poor boy, rose to national hero status on the critic's side of America's car wars. His best-seller Unsafe at Any Speed focused on the appalling accident record of Chevrolet's Corvair and was largely responsible for the congressional passage, in , of the nation's first reasonably stringent auto safety law.
Accident facts, edition. Itasca, Illinois: National Safety Council, Reducing the burden of injury: advancing prevention and treatment. Washington, D. Safety research for a changing highway environment. The cost of injury in the United States: a report to Congress. Position papers from the Third National Injury Control Conference: setting the national agenda for injury control in the s.
Injuries from traffic crashes: meeting the challenge. Annu Rev Publ Health ; Injury Prevention ; Prevention of motor vehicle-related injuries: a compendium of articles from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Atlanta, Georgia: U. Traffic safety facts, Alcohol involvement in fatal motor-vehicle crashes--United States, MMWR ;, Promoting safety in adolescents.
Promoting the health of adolescents: new directions for the 21st century. Effectiveness of graduated driver licensing in reducing motor vehicle crashes.
Am J Prev Med ;16 1 suppl Effectiveness of primary and secondary enforced seat belt laws. Research note. National occupant protection use survey, controlled intersection study. Washington D. NHTSA traffic tech note no. Improper use of child safety seats--Kentucky, MMWR ; Child passengers at risk in America: a national study of car seat misuse.
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Motor-Vehicle Safety: A 20th Century Public Health Achievement
The National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act was enacted in the United States in to empower the federal government to set and administer new safety standards for motor vehicles and road traffic safety. The Act was the first mandatory federal safety standards for motor vehicles. The Act was one of a number of initiatives by the government in response to increasing number of cars and associated fatalities and injuries on the road following a period when the number of people killed on the road had increased 6-fold and the number of vehicles was up fold since The reduction of the rate of death attributable to motor-vehicle crashes in the United States represents the successful public health response to a great technologic advance of the 20th century—the motorization of America. Systematic motor-vehicle safety efforts began during the s.
The reduction of the rate of death attributable to motor-vehicle crashes in the United States represents the successful public health response to a great technologic advance of the 20th century—the motorization of America. Six times as many people drive today as in , and the number of motor vehicles in the country has increased fold since then to approximately million. Despite this steep increase in motor-vehicle travel, the annual death rate has declined from 18 per million vehicle miles traveled VMT in to 1. Figure 1. Systematic motor-vehicle safety efforts began during the s. The systematic approach to motor-vehicle-related injury prevention began with NHSB's first director, Dr.
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National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966
Persons using assistive technology might not be able to fully access information in this file. For assistance, please send e-mail to: mmwrq cdc. Type Accommodation and the title of the report in the subject line of e-mail. The reduction of the rate of death attributable to motor-vehicle crashes in the United States represents the successful public health response to a great technologic advance of the 20th century--the motorization of America.
Both acts were passed by Congress and signed by Pres. Lyndon Johnson in By , automobile accidents had become the leading cause of death of Americans under age Both government and manufacturers had largely ignored the issue, though, until a series of events focused national attention on automobile safety and culminated in litigation and automobile recalls in the years following the establishment of the NHSB and NHTSA. A relatively obscure lawyer named Ralph Nader emphasized the issue of automobile safety in his book Unsafe at Any Speed , which focused on the alleged defects of the Chevrolet Corvair.
During its second session, the 89th Congress took up the issue of comprehensive traffic and motor vehicle safety for the first time. Previous congresses had addressed some traffic safety issues in limited ways. However, a National Safety Council report estimating that automobile accidents resulted in 49, deaths, 1. Auto industry giants, including General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, and American Motors, initially resisted these developments, arguing that driver error and poor road conditions, not their cars, were to blame. President Johnson waded into the highway safety debate in early , throwing support behind congressional action in his State of the Union address and subsequent speeches.
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National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act
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Ты права, - проворчал Стратмор. - Поэтому я его и попросил. Я не мог позволить себе роскошь… - Директор знает, что вы послали в Испанию частное лицо. - Сьюзан, - сказал Стратмор, уже теряя терпение, - директор не имеет к этому никакого отношения. Он вообще не в курсе дела. Сьюзан смотрела на Стратмора, не веря своим ушам. У нее возникло ощущение, что она разговаривает с абсолютно незнакомым человеком.
Празднично одетые испанцы выходили из дверей и ворот на улицу, оживленно разговаривая и смеясь. Халохот, спустившись вниз по улочке, смачно выругался. Сначала от Беккера его отделяла лишь одна супружеская пара, и он надеялся, что они куда-нибудь свернут. Но колокольный звон растекался по улочке, призывая людей выйти из своих домов. Появилась вторая пара, с детьми, и шумно приветствовала соседей.
Она все поняла. - Вроде Попрыгунчика. Стратмор кивнул: - Тогда мы смогли бы подменить интернетовский файл, который Танкадо собирается выбросить на рынок, нашей измененной версией. Поскольку Цифровая крепость - это японский код, никто никогда не заподозрит, что наше агентство имеет к нему отношение.
При этом внезапное отключение электроснабжения не прерывало работу ТРАНСТЕКСТА и его фреоновой системы охлаждения. Если бы этого не было, температура от трех миллионов работающих процессоров поднялась бы до недопустимого уровня - скорее всего силиконовые чипы воспламенились бы и расплавились. Поэтому такая перспектива даже не обсуждалась.