File Name: acute and chronic complications of diabetes .zip
Objective: To explore the patterns and prevalence of complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM in Jazan region.
- Complications of Acute and Chronic Hyperglycemia
- Diabetes: Preventing Complications
- Complications of Diabetes 2017
- Chronic Complications of Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus DM , commonly known as diabetes , is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time.
Complications of Acute and Chronic Hyperglycemia
Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar glucose. Glucose is vital to your health because it's an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It's also your brain's main source of fuel. The underlying cause of diabetes varies by type. But, no matter what type of diabetes you have, it can lead to excess sugar in your blood.
Too much sugar in your blood can lead to serious health problems. Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include prediabetes and gestational diabetes.
Prediabetes occurs when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.
And prediabetes is often the precursor of diabetes unless appropriate measures are taken to prevent progression. Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy but may resolve after the baby is delivered. Diabetes symptoms vary depending on how much your blood sugar is elevated. Some people, especially those with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, may sometimes not experience symptoms.
In type 1 diabetes, symptoms tend to come on quickly and be more severe. Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, though it often appears during childhood or adolescence. Type 2 diabetes, the more common type, can develop at any age, though it's more common in people older than Glucose — a sugar — is a source of energy for the cells that make up muscles and other tissues.
The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. What is known is that your immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria or viruses — attacks and destroys your insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This leaves you with little or no insulin. Instead of being transported into your cells, sugar builds up in your bloodstream. Type 1 is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, though exactly what those factors are is still unclear.
Weight is not believed to be a factor in type 1 diabetes. In prediabetes — which can lead to type 2 diabetes — and in type 2 diabetes, your cells become resistant to the action of insulin, and your pancreas is unable to make enough insulin to overcome this resistance.
Instead of moving into your cells where it's needed for energy, sugar builds up in your bloodstream. Exactly why this happens is uncertain, although it's believed that genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes too. Being overweight is strongly linked to the development of type 2 diabetes, but not everyone with type 2 is overweight. During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones to sustain your pregnancy.
These hormones make your cells more resistant to insulin. Normally, your pancreas responds by producing enough extra insulin to overcome this resistance. But sometimes your pancreas can't keep up. When this happens, too little glucose gets into your cells and too much stays in your blood, resulting in gestational diabetes. Although the exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown, factors that may signal an increased risk include:.
Researchers don't fully understand why some people develop prediabetes and type 2 diabetes and others don't. It's clear that certain factors increase the risk, however, including:. Pregnant women can develop gestational diabetes. Some women are at greater risk than are others. Risk factors for gestational diabetes include:. Long-term complications of diabetes develop gradually.
The longer you have diabetes — and the less controlled your blood sugar — the higher the risk of complications. Eventually, diabetes complications may be disabling or even life-threatening. Possible complications include:. Nerve damage neuropathy. Excess sugar can injure the walls of the tiny blood vessels capillaries that nourish your nerves, especially in your legs. This can cause tingling, numbness, burning or pain that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward.
Left untreated, you could lose all sense of feeling in the affected limbs. Damage to the nerves related to digestion can cause problems with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation.
For men, it may lead to erectile dysfunction. Most women who have gestational diabetes deliver healthy babies. However, untreated or uncontrolled blood sugar levels can cause problems for you and your baby. Complications in your baby can occur as a result of gestational diabetes, including:. Complications in the mother also can occur as a result of gestational diabetes, including:.
Type 1 diabetes can't be prevented. However, the same healthy lifestyle choices that help treat prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes can also help prevent them:.
Lose excess pounds. Don't try to lose weight during pregnancy, however. Talk to your doctor about how much weight is healthy for you to gain during pregnancy. To keep your weight in a healthy range, focus on permanent changes to your eating and exercise habits.
Motivate yourself by remembering the benefits of losing weight, such as a healthier heart, more energy and improved self-esteem.
Sometimes medication is an option as well. Oral diabetes drugs such as metformin Glumetza, Fortamet, others may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes — but healthy lifestyle choices remain essential. Have your blood sugar checked at least once a year to check that you haven't developed type 2 diabetes.
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This content does not have an Arabic version. Request an appointment. Overview Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar glucose. Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic. More Information Diabetes care at Mayo Clinic Diabetes and depression: Coping with the two conditions How diabetes affects your blood sugar. More Information Diabetes care at Mayo Clinic Amputation and diabetes Bone and joint problems associated with diabetes Diabetes and foot care Diabetes and liver Show more related information.
Share on: Facebook Twitter. Show references Ferri FF. Diabetes mellitus. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor Philadelphia, Pa. Accessed March 6, Standards of medical care in diabetes — Diabetes Care. Papadakis MA, et al. Diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia. New York, N. Gabbe SG, et al. Diabetes mellitus complicating normal pregnancy.
In: Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. Accessed Jan. Cunningham FG, et al. In: Williams Obstetrics. Artificial pancreas. Accessed March 11, Natural medicines in the clinical management of diabetes.
Natural Medicines. Morrow ES. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic. Kasper DL, et al. Diabetes mellitus: Diagnosis, classification and pathophysiology.
Diabetes: Preventing Complications
Diabetes is widely recognized as an emerging epidemic that has a cumulative impact on almost every country, age group, and economy across the world. According to the International Diabetes Federation, in , approximately million people were suffering from diabetes worldwide, and this number is expected to exceed million by the year It is estimated that half of patients with diabetes are unaware of their disease and are thus more prone to developing diabetic complications. However, the cost of dealing with diabetes can be unaffordable in terms of money spent and lives lost. In , approximately 5. Diabetes complications are common among patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes but, at the same time, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality.
Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar glucose. Glucose is vital to your health because it's an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It's also your brain's main source of fuel. The underlying cause of diabetes varies by type. But, no matter what type of diabetes you have, it can lead to excess sugar in your blood. Too much sugar in your blood can lead to serious health problems. Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
Complications of Diabetes 2017
Hyperglycemia is due to a dysregulation in the complex mechanisms implicated in glucose homeostasis. Chronic hyperglycemia, as measured by hemoglobin A1c HbA1c , is a key risk factor for the development of microvascular and macrovascular complications, which in turn negatively influence the prognosis of patients with diabetes. Several studies have shown that acute hyperglycemia can add to the effect of chronic hyperglycemia in inducing tissue damage.
Diabetes complications can be divided into two types: acute sudden and chronic long-term. This article discusses these complications and strategies to prevent the complications from occurring in the first place. Chronic complications are responsible for most illness and death associated with diabetes.
По голосу Стратмора, мягкому и спокойному, никто никогда не догадался бы, что мир, в котором он жил, рушится у него на глазах. Он отступил от двери и отошел чуть в сторону, пропуская Чатрукьяна в святая святых Третьего узла.
Chronic Complications of Diabetes
Выли сирены. Как весенний лед на реке, потрескивал корпус ТРАНСТЕКСТА. - Я спущусь вниз и отключу электропитание, - сказал Стратмор, положив руку на плечо Сьюзан и стараясь ее успокоить. - И сразу же вернусь. Сьюзан безучастно смотрела, как он направился в шифровалку.
Люди на подиуме не отрываясь смотрели на экран. Агент Смит начал доклад. - По вашему приказу, директор, - говорил он, - мы провели в Севилье два дня, выслеживая мистера Энсея Танкадо. - Расскажите, как он погиб, - нетерпеливо сказал Фонтейн. Смит сообщил: - Мы вели наблюдение из мини-автобуса с расстояния метров в пятьдесят. Вначале все шло гладко. Халохот, по всей видимости, настоящий профессионал.
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Если информация верна, выходит, Танкадо и его партнер - это одно и то же лицо. Мысли ее смешались. Хоть бы замолчала эта омерзительная сирена. Почему Стратмор отмел такую возможность. Хейл извивался на полу, стараясь увидеть, чем занята Сьюзан. - Что .
Это беспокоило Фонтейна: к коммандеру сходится множество нитей в агентстве, а директору нужно оберегать свое ведомство. Фонтейну нужен был кто-то способный наблюдать за Стратмором, следить, чтобы он не потерял почву под ногами и оставался абсолютно надежным, но это было не так-то. Стратмор - человек гордый и властный, наблюдение за ним следует организовать так, чтобы никоим образом не подорвать его авторитета.
Это его прерогатива. Я плачу вам за то, чтобы вы следили за отчетностью и обслуживали сотрудников, а не шпионили за моим заместителем. Если бы не он, мы бы до сих пор взламывали шифры с помощью карандаша и бумаги. А теперь уходите! - Он повернулся к Бринкерхоффу, с побледневшим лицом стоявшему возле двери. - Вы оба.
Не знаю, почему Фонтейн прикидывается идиотом, но ТРАНСТЕКСТ в опасности.
Это не числа, такие различия нас не касаются. - Работайте, - поторопил Фонтейн. На ВР последняя стена стала уже тоньше яичной скорлупы. Джабба поднял брови.