File Name: lave and wenger 1991 situated learning .zip
Many of the ways we have of talking about learning and education are based on the assumption that learning is something that individuals do. But how would things look if we took a different track?
- Evolution of Wenger's concept of community of practice
- Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation . Jean Lave, Etienne Wenger
- Lave and Wenger Chapter 1
- Situated learning
Cognitive apprenticeship ; Communities of practice ; Situated cognition.
Situated Learning Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Communities of Practice A Literature Review. Situated Learning. In this important theoretical treatist, Jean Lave, anthropologist, and Etienne Wenger, computer scientist, push forward the notion of In this important theoretical treatist, Jean Lave, anthropologist, and Etienne Wenger, computer scientist, push forward the notion of situated learning - that learning is fundamentally a social process.
Evolution of Wenger's concept of community of practice
Many of the ways we have of talking about learning and education are based on the assumption that learning is something that individuals do. But how would things look if we took a different track?
Supposing learning is social and comes largely from of our experience of participating in daily life? It was this thought that formed the basis of a significant rethinking of learning theory in the late s and early s by two researchers from very different disciplines — Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger. Jean Lave was and is a social anthropologist with a strong interest in social theory, based at the University of California, Berkeley.
He is now an independent consultant specializing in developing communities of practice within organizations. Their path-breaking analysis, first published in Situated Learning: Legitimate peripheral participation and later augmented in works by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger ; set the scene for some significant innovations in practice within organizations and more recently within some schools see Rogoff et al The basic argument made by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger is that communities of practice are everywhere and that we are generally involved in a number of them — whether that is at work, school, home, or in our civic and leisure interests.
Etienne Wenger was later to write:. Communities of practice are formed by people who engage in a process of collective learning in a shared domain of human endeavour: a tribe learning to survive, a band of artists seeking new forms of expression, a group of engineers working on similar problems, a clique of pupils defining their identity in the school, a network of surgeons exploring novel techniques, a gathering of first-time managers helping each other cope.
In a nutshell: Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly.
Wenger circa Being alive as human beings means that we are constantly engaged in the pursuit of enterprises of all kinds, from ensuring our physical survival to seeking the most lofty pleasures.
As we define these enterprises and engage in their pursuit together, we interact with each other and with the world and we tune our relations with each other and with the world accordingly.
In other words we learn. Over time, this collective learning results in practices that reflect both the pursuit of our enterprises and the attendant social relations. These practices are thus the property of a kind of community created over time by the sustained pursuit of a shared enterprise. It makes sense, therefore to call these kinds of communities communities of practice. Wenger The characteristics of such communities of practice vary.
Some have names, many do not. Some communities of practice are quite formal in organization, others are very fluid and informal. In this respect, a community of practice is different from a community of interest or a geographical community in that it involves a shared practice. According to Etienne Wenger c , three elements are crucial in distinguishing a community of practice from other groups and communities:.
The domain. A community of practice is is something more than a club of friends or a network of connections between people. The community. The practice. They develop a shared repertoire of resources: experiences, stories, tools, ways of addressing recurring problems—in short a shared practice. A community of practice involves, thus, much more than the technical knowledge or skill associated with undertaking some task.
Members are involved in a set of relationships over time Lave and Wenger 98 and communities develop around things that matter to people Wenger The fact that they are organizing around some particular area of knowledge and activity gives members a sense of joint enterprise and identity. For a community of practice to function it needs to generate and appropriate a shared repertoire of ideas, commitments and memories.
It also needs to develop various resources such as tools, documents, routines, vocabulary and symbols that in some way carry the accumulated knowledge of the community. In other words, it involves practice see praxis : ways of doing and approaching things that are shared to some significant extent among members. The interactions involved, and the ability to undertake larger or more complex activities and projects though cooperation, bind people together and help to facilitate relationship and trust see the discussion of community elsewhere on these pages.
Communities of practice can be seen as self-organizing systems and have many of the benefits and characteristics of associational life such as the generation of what Robert Putnam and others have discussed as social capital. Rather than looking to learning as the acquisition of certain forms of knowledge, Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger have tried to place it in social relationships — situations of co-participation.
As William F. It not so much that learners acquire structures or models to understand the world, but they participate in frameworks that that have structure. Learning involves participation in a community of practice. Lave and Wenger illustrate their theory by observations of different apprenticeships Yucatec midwives, Vai and Gola tailors, US Navy quartermasters, meat-cutters, and non-drinking alcoholics in Alcoholics Anonymous.
Initially people have to join communities and learn at the periphery. The things they are involved in, the tasks they do may be less key to the community than others. As they become more competent they become more involved in the main processes of the particular community. Learning is, thus, not seen as the acquisition of knowledge by individuals so much as a process of social participation.
The nature of the situation impacts significantly on the process. Learners inevitably participate in communities of practitioners and… the mastery of knowledge and skill requires newcomers to move toward full participation in the socio-cultural practices of a community.
This social process, includes, indeed it subsumes, the learning of knowledgeable skills. Lave and Wenger In this there is a concern with identity, with learning to speak, act and improvise in ways that make sense in the community. In other words, this is a relational view of the person and learning see the discussion of selfhood. This orientation has the definite advantage of drawing attention to the need to understand knowledge and learning in context. However, situated learning depends on two claims:.
Questions can be raised about both of these claims. It may be, with regard to the first claim, for example, that learning can occur that is seemingly unrelated to a particular context or life situation. Second, there may situations where the community of practice is weak or exhibits power relationships that seriously inhibit entry and participation.
There is a risk, as Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger acknowledge, of romanticizing communities of practice. However, there has been a tendency in their earlier work of falling into this trap. However, where Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger approached the area through an exploration of local encounters and examples, Ivan Illich started with a macro-analysis of the debilitating effects of institutions such as schooling.
In both cases the sweep of their arguments led to an under-appreciation of the uses of more formal structures and institutions for learning. However, this was understandable given the scale of the issues and problems around learning within professionalized and bureaucratic institutions such as schools their respective analyses revealed.
These ideas have been picked-up most strongly within organizational development circles. The use of the apprenticeship model made for a strong set of connections with important traditions of thinking about training and development within organizations.
It allowed proponents to argue that communities of practice needed to be recognized as valuable assets. The model gave those concerned with organizational development a way of thinking about how benefits could accrue to the organization itself, and how value did not necessarily lie primarily with the individual members of a community of practice.
Acknowledging that communities of practice affect performance is important in part because of their potential to overcome the inherent problems of a slow-moving traditional hierarchy in a fast-moving virtual economy. Communities also appear to be an effective way for organizations to handle unstructured problems and to share knowledge outside of the traditional structural boundaries.
In addition, the community concept is acknowledged to be a means of developing and maintaining long-term organizational memory. These outcomes are an important, yet often unrecognized, supplement to the value that individual members of a community obtain in the form of enriched learning and higher motivation to apply what they learn.
Lesser and Storck Attention to communities of practice could, thus enhance organizational effectiveness and profitability. For obvious reasons, formal education institutions have been less ready to embrace these ideas. There was a very real sense in which the direction of the analysis undermined their reason for being and many of their practices. In particular, there was significant mileage in exploring how communities of practice emerge within schooling, the process involved and how they might be enhanced.
Furthermore, there was also significant possibility in a fuller appreciation of what constitutes practice as earlier writers such Carr and Kemmis , and Grundy had already highlighted: see curriculum and praxis. Perhaps the most helpful of these explorations is that of Barbara Rogoff and her colleagues These are themes that have part of the informal education tradition for many years — but the way in which Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger have developed an understanding of the nature of learning within communities of practice, and how knowledge is generated allows educators to think a little differently about the groups, networks and associations with which they are involved.
It is worth looking more closely at the processes they have highlighted. The notion of community of practice and the broader conceptualization of situated learning provides significant pointers for practice.
Here I want to highlight three:. Learning is in the relationships between people. As McDermott in Murphy puts it:. Learning traditionally gets measured as on the assumption that it is a possession of individuals that can be found inside their heads… [Here] learning is in the relationships between people. Learning is in the conditions that bring people together and organize a point of contact that allows for particular pieces of information to take on a relevance; without the points of contact, without the system of relevancies, there is not learning, and there is little memory.
Learning does not belong to individual persons, but to the various conversations of which they are a part. Within systems oriented to individual accreditation, and that have lost any significant focus on relationship through pressures on them to meet centrally-determined targets, this approach to learning is challenging and profoundly problematic.
It highlights just how far the frameworks for schooling, lifelong learning and youth work in states like Britain and Northern Ireland have drifted away from a proper appreciation of what constitutes learning or indeed society. Educators have a major educational task with policymakers as well as participants in their programmes and activities.
Educators work so that people can become participants in communities of practice. Educators need to explore with people in communities how all may participate to the full. Their example in this area have particular force as they are derived from actual school practice. A further, key, element is the need to extend associational life within schools and other institutions. Here there is a strong link here with long-standing concerns among informal educators around community and participation and for the significance of the group for schooling see the discussion of informal education and schooling ; for youth work see young people and association ; and for communities see community participation.
There is an intimate connection between knowledge and activity. Learning is part of daily living as Eduard Lindeman argued many years ago. Educators need to reflect on their understanding of what constitutes knowledge and practice. Perhaps one of the most important things to grasp here is the extent to which education involves informed and committed action. These are fascinating areas for exploration and, to some significant extent, take informal educators in a completely different direction to the dominant pressure towards accreditation and formalization.
Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation . Jean Lave, Etienne Wenger
A community of practice CoP is a group of people who "share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly". Wenger then significantly expanded on the concept in his book Communities of Practice Wenger A CoP can evolve naturally because of the members' common interest in a particular domain or area, or it can be created deliberately with the goal of gaining knowledge related to a specific field. CoPs can exist in physical settings, for example, a lunch room at work, a field setting, a factory floor, or elsewhere in the environment, but members of CoPs do not have to be co-located. A "mobile community of practice" MCoP Kietzmann et al. Communities of practice are not new phenomena: this type of learning has existed for as long as people have been learning and sharing their experiences through storytelling.
Situated learning is a theory that explains an individual's acquisition of professional skills and includes research on apprenticeship into how legitimate peripheral participation leads to membership in a community of practice. The theory is distinguished from alternative views of learning which define learning as the acquisition of propositional knowledge. Situated learning was first proposed by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger as a model of learning in a community of practice. At its simplest, situated learning is learning that takes place in the same context in which it is applied. For example, the workplace is considered as a discernible community of practice operating as a context wherein newcomers assimilate norms, behavior, values, relationships, and beliefs. Lave and Wenger  argue that learning is a social process whereby knowledge is co-constructed; they suggest that such learning is situated in a specific context and embedded within a particular social and physical environment.
Metrics details. In the experience of health professionals, it appears that interacting with peers in the workplace fosters learning and information sharing. Informal groups and networks present good opportunities for information exchange. Communities of practice CoPs , which have been described by Wenger and others as a type of informal learning organization, have received increasing attention in the health care sector; however, the lack of uniform operating definitions of CoPs has resulted in considerable variation in the structure and function of these groups, making it difficult to evaluate their effectiveness. To critique the evolution of the CoP concept as based on the germinal work by Wenger and colleagues published between and
Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. JEAN LAVE and ETIENNE WENGER. Street Mathematics and School Mathematics. TEREZINHA NUNES.
Lave and Wenger Chapter 1
Situating learning in communities of practice Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation by.
In particular, it was Lave who observed that craft. Situated learning theory states that every idea and human action is a generalization, adapted to the ongoing environment; it is founded on the belief that what people learn, see, and do is situated in their role as a member of a community Lave and Wenger,. Situated learning was observed among Yucatec midwives, native tailors, navy. In this important theoretical treatist, Jean Lave, anthropologist, and Etienne Wenger, computer scientist, push forward the notion of situated learning - that learning is fundamentally a social process.
In the Forward to Situated Learning, William Hanks notes that the concepts explored in the book challenge basic conceptions about learning. Rather than defining it as the acquisition of propositional knowledge, Lave and Wenger situate learning in certain forms of social coparticipation. Described in this way, learning becomes the shared result of participation between learners of various skill levels in an authentic context. In Chapter 1, Lave and Wenger describe the origin of their approach to situated learning, and define the key concepts that they will echo throughout the book. LPP is indivisible because these three concepts define social life.
Table of contents.
This article or chapter is incomplete and its contents need further attention. Some information may be missing or may be wrong, spelling and grammar may have to be improved, use your judgment! Situated learning like socio-constructivism refers either to families of learning theories or pedagogic strategies. It is closely related to socio-culturalism and distributed cognition and probably identical to cognitive apprenticeship. For Brown, Collins and Duguid knowledge is a set of tools that need a context in order to be used and made explicit. The way in which knowledge will be used to solve a problem will be determined by the culture and the environment that encompasses an activity.
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The purpose of this paper is to discuss a combination of basic elements of two different and contemporary approaches to learning in enhancing knowledge in organizations. The paper is based mainly on a literature review trying to combine elements of two different approaches of adult learning. Although situated learning and transformative learning start from different viewpoints, they can be combined in the making of the reflective practitioner and professional. The proposal presented here shows that critical reflection can assist in developing a more effective gradual entrance for newcomers in a professional environment. Karalis, T. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Report bugs here.
These ideas are what Lave & Wenger () call the process of. "legitimate peripheral participation." Other researchers have further developed the theory of.
To explore the relationships between communities in which learning occurs and the situated nature of learning, remembering, and understanding. This sociocultural perspective was in contrast to the cognitive perspectives of learning that were popular at the time i. Legitimate peripheral participation evolved from observations about cognitive apprenticeship and situated learning in communities of practice. A community of practice is a learning environment that includes a spectrum of participants from inexperienced members who are joining the community or apprentices to experienced members who have a lot of knowledge about practicing an occupation or masters. Legitimate peripheral participation describes how apprentices learn from each other and masters to engage in the community and develop skills.
In the Forward to Situated Learning, William Hanks notes that the concepts explored in the book challenge basic conceptions about learning. Rather than defining it as the acquisition of propositional knowledge, Lave and Wenger situate learning in certain forms of social coparticipation. Described in this way, learning becomes the shared result of participation between learners of various skill levels in an authentic context. In Chapter 1, Lave and Wenger describe the origin of their approach to situated learning, and define the key concepts that they will echo throughout the book. LPP is indivisible because these three concepts define social life. My response. Lave and Wenger have created a mode for understanding how people involve themselves in social practices almost all of human activity and how people learn through those social practices.