File Name: heating and cooling degree days .zip
The degree-day is an index number originally developed by heating, ventilation, and air conditioning engineers Houghton,
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A degree day is a measure of heating or cooling. Total degree days from an appropriate starting date are used to plan the planting of crops and management of pests and pest control timing. Weekly or monthly degree-day figures may also be used within an energy monitoring and targeting scheme to monitor the heating and cooling costs of climate controlled buildings, while annual figures can be used for estimating future costs. A degree day is computed as the integral of a function of time that generally varies with temperature. The function is truncated to upper and lower limits that vary by organism, or to limits that are appropriate for climate control.
It is well known that the demand for energy is related to temperature because of the use of energy for heating and cooling buildings Taylor and Buizza ; Isaac and Van Vuuren Therefore, changes in future energy demand will be affected not only by socioeconomic factors such as economic and population growth but also by changes in climate. This has important implications for building design and planning. Moreover, this is an important example of a situation in which mitigation of and adaptation to climate change interact; in a warming climate, society would need to adapt its energy use to cope with changed temperature. All other things being equal, reductions in energy use because of reduced need for heating would reduce emissions, thus contributing to mitigation. On the other hand, increases in energy use because of the need for cooling would increase emissions, making mitigation harder to achieve.
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Heating degree day HDD is a measurement designed to quantify the demand for energy needed to heat a building. HDD is derived from measurements of outside air temperature. The heating requirements for a given building at a specific location are considered to be directly proportional to the number of HDD at that location. Related measurements include the cooling degree day CDD , which quantifies demand for air conditioning. Heating degree days are defined relative to a base temperature—the outside temperature above which a building needs no heating. Base temperatures may be defined for a particular building as a function of the temperature that the building is heated to, or it may be defined for a country or region for example. In the latter case, building standards or conventions may exist for the temperature threshold.
However, temperature can predict more than boom or bust. Atmospheric temperature can predict the growth rates of many plants. For this reason, growers use a concept called growing degree-days GDD , sometimes called heat units. GDD relate air temperature to plant growth, development, and maturity.
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Using the AgroClimate Website to Track and Forecast GDD Accumulation
As outdoor temperature goes down, the amount of energy required for heating goes up. Similarly, as outdoor temperature goes up, the energy demand for most air conditioner and refrigeration systems increases. This indicator measures changes in the average annual energy requirements for heating and cooling of similarly constructed and insulated buildings from to Results are provided for British Columbia and each of the nine terrestrial ecoprovinces. The methods used to develop this indicator and more about energy requirements for heating and cooling and other climate indicators are available in Indicators of Climate Change for British Columbia Update PDF, 4. The R code for creating the graphs presented on this page is available on GitHub. Ministry of Environment, British Columbia, Canada.
- Мы прибываем через полчаса. Беккер мрачно кивнул невидимому голосу. Замечательно. Он опустил шторку иллюминатора и попытался вздремнуть. Но мысли о Сьюзан не выходили из головы.
Его кабинет находился на девятом этаже - в так называемом Коридоре красного дерева.
Я вчера говорил с. Велел ему сегодня не приходить. Он ничего не сказал о том, что поменялся с тобой дежурством. У Чатрукьяна ком застрял в горле.