P Type And N Type Semiconductor Materials Pdf

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Difference Between p Type and n Type Semiconductor

It is possible to shift the balance of electrons and holes in a silicon crystal lattice by "doping" it with other atoms. Atoms with one more valence electron than silicon are used to produce " n -type" semiconductor material. Therefore, more electrons are added to the conduction band and hence increases the number of electrons present. Atoms with one less valence electron result in " p -type" material. Therefore, p -type material has only 3 valence electrons with which to interact with silicon atoms.

October 01, Ebreo, Phoebe Ms. Before understanding several devices like Semiconductor Diodes, Transistors, etc. This means that they have a resistivity too low to be called an insulator but at the same time, too high to be called a conductor. There are two types of semiconductor components in electronic and electrical circuits. Diodes are the foremost active components and resistors are the foremost passive components in electronic design circuits.

The addition of a small percentage of foreign atoms in the regular crystal lattice of silicon or germanium produces dramatic changes in their electrical properties, producing n-type and p-type semiconductors. Pentavalent impurities Impurity atoms with 5 valence electrons produce n-type semiconductors by contributing extra electrons. Trivalent impurities Impurity atoms with 3 valence electrons produce p-type semiconductors by producing a " hole " or electron deficiency. The addition of pentavalent impurities such as antimony, arsenic or phosphorus contributes free electrons, greatly increasing the conductivity of the intrinsic semiconductor. Phosphorus may be added by diffusion of phosphine gas PH3. The addition of trivalent impurities such as boron, aluminum or gallium to an intrinsic semiconductor creates deficiencies of valence electrons, called "holes".

p- type and n- type semiconductor

The process of purposefully adding impurities to materials is called doping; semiconductors with impurities are referred to as "doped semiconductors". In a pure intrinsic Si or Ge semiconductor, each nucleus uses its four valence electrons to form four covalent bonds with its neighbors see figure below. Since there are no excess electrons or holes In this case, the number of electrons and holes present at any given time will always be equal. An intrinsic semiconductor. Now, if one of the atoms in the semiconductor lattice is replaced by an element with three valence electrons, such as a Group 3 element like Boron B or Gallium Ga , the electron-hole balance will be changed.

We know that the p-type and n-type semiconductors come under extrinsic semiconductors. The classification of the semiconductor can be done based on doping like intrinsic and extrinsic as per the matter of purity concerned. There are many factors that generate the main difference between these two semiconductors. The formation of p-type semiconductor material can be done by adding the group III elements. Similarly, the n-type semiconductor material can be formed by adding group V elements. This article discusses the difference between P-type semiconductor and N-type semiconductor. The P-type semiconductor can be defined as, once the trivalent impurity atoms such as indium, gallium are added to an intrinsic semiconductor, and then it is known as a p-type semiconductor.

The various factors like doping element, nature of doping element, the majority and minority carriers in the p-type and n-type semiconductor. The density of electrons and holes, energy level and Fermi level, the direction of movement of majority carriers, etc. The difference between a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor is given below in the tabulated form. The p-type semiconductor is formed when the Trivalent impurity is added to the pure semiconductor. Similarly, when a Pentavalent impurity is added to the pure semiconductor n-type semiconductor is obtained.

Difference Between p Type and n Type Semiconductor

Semiconductors are materials that have properties of both normal conductors and insulators. Semiconductors fall into two broad categories:. In the classic crystalline semiconductors, electrons can have energies only within certain bands ranges of energy levels.

Difference between P-type Semiconductor and N-type Semiconductor

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2 Response
  1. Witttelisdo1991

    Current in Semiconductors. 1–4. N-Type and P-Type Semiconductors different types of semiconductive material are joined. The pn junction is fundamental to.

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