File Name: public relations and propaganda .zip
Propaganda and Public Relations, Government. Propaganda is a deliberate attempt to persuade people to think and then behave in a manner desired by the source; public relations , a branch of propaganda, is a related process intended to enhance the relationship between an organization and the public.
- Government Public Relations: Public Diplomacy or Propaganda?
- The Public Relations and Propaganda Controversy
- Governments’ Use of Public Relations and Propaganda
Government Public Relations: Public Diplomacy or Propaganda?
Advertising is a relatively straightforward process, right? Companies develop brands and specific products they want to sell. The basic definition of advertising is a message or group of messages designed with three intentions: to raise awareness in the population about brands, products and services; to encourage consumers to make purchases; and, ultimately, to inspire people to advocate for their favorite brands.
A brand advocate is someone who is so supportive of a product or service that they publicly encourage others to buy it. Consumers who have been so successfully persuaded to purchase and enjoy a product that they try to persuade others to buy it too extend the reach of advertising potentially exponentially. It is important to differentiate between the two. Under the Pepsi brand, there are several products such as Diet Pepsi, Pepsi Wild Cherry and many other variations around the world.
Advertising most often focuses on brands and products rather than the companies and large corporations that own them. As this chapter progresses, it defines the core concept of advertising in more depth. Then, it discusses the history of advertising. There are sections on content marketing and other forms of persuasion. The big picture of marketing is briefly addressed before the chapter concludes with sections on public relations and propaganda.
On one level, advertising is a simple concept. Mass media professionals craft messages to help sell products by raising awareness and pushing people to make actual purchase decisions, but in the network society and the age of targeted marketing, the ability to reach individual consumers who fit precise sets of characteristics is incredible.
Brands may advertise during certain TV shows or publications to reach a particular type of media consumer. This more traditional form of mass media advertising is still a multibillion-dollar industry, but with data-driven targeting capabilities, brands can reach people based not only on general demographic characteristics but on specific behaviors as well.
The level of targeting that is possible is incredible and would have been unimaginable 20 years ago. Now, there is a greater ability than ever to identify and create a need not only for interested members of a mass audience but also for specific individuals in real time based on their online and physical world behavior. Before delving into a discussion about the future of advertising, it might help to survey the history of the field.
Advertising in the modern sense emerged between the midth and earlyth centuries. At the same time that the concept of brands was developing, mass-media platforms such as daily newspapers and radio broadcasts grew their audiences and spread their influence geographically.
Corporations, conveniently, grew large enough to have massive budgets to spend on advertising. The promotion of products dates back thousands of years, but the modern advertising explosion tracks explosive growth in industrial manufacturing from roughly the mids through the entire 20th century.
Some highlights are referenced here. One key point made in this visual history is that non-branded newspaper ads would often outnumber branded ads in the early days of the newspaper industry. In other words, it is known as the first modern ad agency.
It was founded in Philadephia in Today there are about , ad agencies in the world of all shapes and sizes. They employ ever-evolving techniques to try to stay ahead of information weary consumers. ATL campaigns most often include television, radio and print ads as well as sponsorships.
This is not an exhaustive list of ATL or BTL methods, but these examples demonstrate that ATL has more in common with the concept of mass communication introduced in earlier chapters, and BTL has more in common with interpersonal communication, also as previously discussed.
This is not to say that BTL messages are crafted one at a time for individual consumers. Rather, the tone, style and method of dissemination of BTL advertising are more personal. Now, there are ad agencies of all sizes, and even very large agencies might do BTL marketing. Online advertising and social media marketing have made it possible to target people with personal messages but still purchase the ads on a massive scale. The profit in BTL marketing comes from reaching large audiences with tailored messages at specific times in relation to their previous purchasing and shopping behaviors.
So much data exists on individual users and on the behavior of similar people who have made similar purchases that advertisers can try to target people at precisely the right moment to influence their purchase decisions. Think of a summer soft drink promotion advertised on television and on the radio ATL that is also backed up with neighborhood-specific billboards and hyper-targeted Twitter messages with surprise prizes given out BTL.
BTL messages still reach large numbers of people, but they are by definition more tailored than ATL ads. An individual ad in a BTL context may not cost as much as a massive ad buy facilitated by an agency that primarily does ATL advertising; however, BTL advertising can still be costly for advertisers and profitable for ad agencies in the aggregate.
For example, an ad agency that does not typically manage multimillion-dollar television ad buys might still put together hundreds of thousands of dollars in targeted social media ads. Rather than displaying one commercial for several months, the BTL social media campaign might be made up of dozens of targeted videos, tweets, influencer posts and online ads. Often software algorithms are used to decide who sees which targeted ad and when.
Professional communicators tailor messages in relation to the advertising funnel or purchase funnel , as shown in the image on the left. Brands, either on their own or with the help of advertising agencies, target audiences in different ways at specific points along the funnel to reach their strategic goals. For example, if an unknown brand launches a new product, people need to be made aware of both the brand and product. The brand may need to establish itself with an awareness campaign.
If Nike introduces a new Air Jordan , the branding is easily handled. First, the consumer needs to be made aware of the brand and its products. Then, they might take an interest in a particular product as they learn more about its features.
They need to move from being interested to desiring a product if they are going to make the purchase. This is not conceptually complicated. The idea is to move people in straightforward steps toward desired behaviors; however, there are complex processes of cognition and persuasion that underlie consumer decisions. Consumer behavior is about as unpredictable as other forms of human behavior. There are also ethical concerns.
If a product or service proves to be harmful, advertisers and public relations professionals have to decide if and when they will stop marketing the brand. Advertising is challenging enough when products do not raise ethical dilemmas. Promoting harmful products can be damaging socially, professionally and personally. Thus, the world of consumer advertising in the mass media is more complex than the funnel makes it seem, although it is an essential strategic model in the industry.
There are two other advertising concepts or theories that this text aims to introduce: the basic rule of seven and the third-person effect. The advertising rule of seven is a rule of thumb, or what social scientists call a heuristic, which suggests that people need to see an advertisement seven times before they act on it.
Instead, the point is that consistent messaging is a base requirement for advertising to work. The purchase decision is ultimately a personal one. You can create the conditions and increase the probability of a product being bought, but it is difficult perhaps impossible to predict behaviors based on messaging.
Even the most successful advertising and propaganda campaigns only constitute one area of influence on behavior. As previously stated in this text, social institutions such as your family, friends, church and workplace can influence your behavior in tandem with or contrary to what you see and hear in the mass media.
Note here that social science theories are based on many observable facts. This is not a flight of fancy. Rather, this is a tested theory demonstrated in multiple studies.
And yet we do know that advertising works at least to influence behavior. It has measurable effects on attitudes , that is, what people think about brands. Advertising influences brand and product awareness in individuals and in groups. We can say with a degree of certainty that some people are directly influenced by some ads some of the time, and we can say that many people are indirectly influenced by ads almost all of the time.
For example, you may not drink Coke Zero, but you probably know what it is, and you may know that it is now called Coke Zero Sugar after a name change in Whether you understand the logic behind the name change or you actually buy the soft drink is another question. Campaigns to make consumers aware of new brands and products have a track record of widespread but still limited success.
Sometimes we even base our behavior on what we think other people will do after receiving a message in the mass media. It works like this: We hear a message that a winter storm is coming, and we worry that other people will be easily influenced by that news. That worry and not the original message may influence our behavior. The author of the original study noted that if there is news of a possible shortage, people sometimes buy up that item at grocery stores.
This has happened as recently as Rice futures went up and up out of fear that people were stockpiling rice. So, what did people do? They stockpiled rice. How does the bread and milk effect work? Following the third-person effect theory, an individual hears about a storm coming to the East Coast of the United States. He thinks that other people are going to feel the need to go out and buy up all of the bread and milk, so, aware of the threat and concerned about their behavior, he goes out and buys bread and milk.
Now the concern has become a self-fulfilling prophecy. People are, in fact, buying up the bread and milk. The question is whether they are buying it up because they are unduly influenced by messages in the mass media, or they are responding out of fear of how other people will behave.
You can imagine other people foolishly thinking a winter storm is going to be worse than it is and you can think to yourself you had better buy the bread and milk before those fools, but to them, you have become the fool.
The third-person effect is also a major issue in race relations and partisan politics. First, we assume that other people have seen the messages we have. Then, we presume that they will be influenced by those messages. Finally, we presume that they will behave in certain ways because of the message and because of our preconceptions about different groups. Researchers have found it is probably strongest in situations where groups have little understanding of one another and where the messages and perceived outcomes are thought to be negative note the section on Perloff.
This is not to overstate the third-person effect. Like other theories related to persuasion in the mass media the behavioral influences it identifies have to contend with other social forces to influence behavior. Still, it is one of the most interesting theories in the field of mass communication, and it can explain why people race out to buy a certain product when they perceive it to be scarce.
The Public Relations and Propaganda Controversy
Setting yourself apart from dozens or — in some cases — hundreds of other job candidates is a challenge. Fierce competition necessitates you demonstrate a superior knowledge of universal public relations principles. The process, which can be summarized in the four steps below, complements coursework and can be used to finish your college career on top. It is important to review resources available for all four steps, starting with the Certificate FAQs , before beginning the process. After graduating, I was interviewed by hiring managers from the United States, Singapore, and Malaysia. Passing the Certificate in Principles of Public Relations Examination gave me the confidence I needed and became a huge talking point during job interviews.
Governments’ Use of Public Relations and Propaganda
PR features in a lot of movies and TV shows, albeit in a dramatized and sometimes inaccurate way; Scandal , Sex and the City , and House of Cards all portraying various aspects of PR in a way that shapes what the general public think PR actually is. In fact, when I tell my friends that I work in Public Relations and what that involves, I am often met with responses similar to the following:. In , the Public Relations Society of America held a competition where the public voted on what the definition for PR should be. The winning definition was:.
Certificate in Principles of Public Relations
Propaganda has been an effective tool to shape public opinion and action for centuries. Since propaganda and public relations both share the goal of using mass communication to influence public perception, it can be easy to conflate the two. Propaganda, however, traffics in lies, misinformation, inflammatory language, and other negative communication to achieve an objective related to a cause, goal or political agenda. Though propaganda techniques can be employed by bad actors on the world stage, these same concepts can be utilized by individuals in their interpersonal relationships. Regardless of how propaganda is employed, these common techniques are used to manipulate others to act or respond in the way that the propagandist desires.
Political communication can be defined as persuasive communication that seeks to implicitly or explicitly advance political goals.