Periodontal Disease And Smoking Pdf

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Smoking has been identified as a major risk factor in the development and progression of periodontal disease. It is essential to assess the influence of smoking on subgingival microflora that is the principal etiological factor of the disease to clarify the contribution of smoking to periodontal disease.

Smoking and Periodontal Disease

Cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for periodontal disease and it is the strongest factor among the modifiable ones 1. Research evidence suggests that smokers have a higher tendency to problems such as teeth and bone loss and gingival recession compared to non-smokers, and to the formation of periodontal pockets, which increase the probability to suffer from more severe periodontal disease 2 - 5. Tobacco can affect the function and proliferation of periodontal cells such as gingival fibroblasts, periodontal membrane cells, periodontal ligament cells and other cells, thus inducing cell apoptosis. It can also affect the invasion of periodontal disease, inhibit the autoimmune defense, and aggravate the inflammation reaction to damage and destroy the alveolar bone. Oral cancer is a common health hazard, which is also closely related to tobacco. This article reviews the relationship among tobacco, periodontal disease and oral cancer.

Tobacco smoking and chronic destructive periodontal disease

Background: Smoking is considered as a global epidemic. Its adverse effects are well known which ranges from staining of teeth to life threatening diseases such as cancer. Smoking also has serious consequences on periodontal health and even affects periodontal treatment outcomes. Though awareness among people has increased about the ill-effects of smoking, less is known about its side effects on periodontium. Materials and methods: A questionnaire study was performed in which total dental patients participated.

Metrics details. Cigarette smoking is known to increase the risk of periodontal destruction and developing chronic periodontitis CP. It is also reported to affect the subgingival bacterial profile among CP patients. However, studies on the effect of smoking on the bacterial profile among healthy subjects are still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of smoking on the subgingival bacterial profile in both healthy adults and CP patients. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from CP patients 30 nonsmokers and 9 smokers and healthy subjects 37 non-smokers and 18 smokers. Comparing smokers to non-smokers from each group was conducted using chi2 and binary logistic regression analysis.


demonstrated an association between smoking and periodontal attachment loss. Disease progression slows in patients who quit smoking as compared to those who continue to smoke. Longitudinal studies show that smokers do not respond as well to periodontal therapy as non-smokers.


Tobacco smoking and chronic destructive periodontal disease

Periodontal disease and oral cancer are common health hazards. Epidemiological investigations show that smoking, periodontal disease and oral cancer are closely related. Tobacco is one of the major risk factors for periodontitis and oral cancer.

Tobacco smoking is the main risk factor associated with chronic destructive periodontal disease. No other known factor can match the strength of smoking in causing harm to the periodontium. The harmful effects manifest themselves by interfering with vascular and immunologic reactions, as well as by undermining the supportive functions of the periodontal tissues.

The Impact of Smoking on Subgingival Microflora: From Periodontal Health to Disease

The Impact of Smoking on Subgingival Microflora: From Periodontal Health to Disease

The role of tobacco smoking as a causative factor in the development of the periodontal disease has long been debated and recently a large number of papers have been published in the literature regarding this symbiosis. Smoking also gives an encouraging environment for microbes in the mouth such as Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia , and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans because the by-products of smoking prevent the mechanisms that limit the growth of harmful bacteria in the oral cavity. Thus, smoking promotes early stages of periodontal disease. Smoking in the form of cigars and pipes have similar deleterious effects that cigarettes do on oral health. Much of the literature has also showed that smokers affected with periodontitis respond less favorably to periodontal treatment be it nonsurgical and surgical. In this paper, we have reviewed the effects of smoking on various aspects of the periodontal disease process. Chatrchaiwiwatana S, Ratanasiri A.

Periodontitis is a group of inflammatory diseases affecting the supporting tissues of the tooth periodontium. The periodontium consists of four tissues : gingiva, alveolar bone and periodontal ligaments. Tobbaco use is one of the modifiable risk factors and has enormous influance on the development, progres and tretmen results of periodontal disease. The relationship between smoking and periodontal health was investigated as early as the miiddle of last century.


PDF | On Jan 1, , A. Pejcic and others published Smoking and periodontal disease: A review | Find, read and cite all the research you.


Effect of tobacco on periodontal disease and oral cancer

International Journal of Dentistry

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Materials and Methods: This is an observational study, patients diagnosed with periodontitis were recruited. Both saliva samples and clinical measurements plaque index PI , bleeding on probing BOP , and pocket depth PD were taken at baseline and after completing non-surgical periodontal therapy.

ТРАНСТЕКСТ, подобно всем великим технологическим достижениям, появился на свет в силу необходимости. В 1980-е годы АНБ стало свидетелем революции в сфере телекоммуникаций, которой было суждено навсегда изменить весь мир разведывательной деятельности, - имеется в виду широкая доступность Интернета, а если говорить конкретнее - появление электронной почты. Преступники, террористы и шпионы, которым надоело прослушивание их телефонов, с радостью встретили это новое средство глобальной коммуникации. Электронная почта соединила безопасность обычной почты со скоростью телефонной связи. С тех пор как сообщения стали передаваться по подземным волоконно-оптическим линиям, а не с помощью радиоволн, они оказались полностью защищенными от перехвата - таков по крайней мере был замысел.

Разум говорил ему, что Стратмор должен быть не наверху, а внизу. Однако звук повторился, на этот раз громче.

2 Response
  1. Charles M.

    A case-control study was done to assess the influence of smoking on clinical, microbiological, and histopathological parameters.

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