File Name: public health and sanitation in telugu .zip
Except as otherwise indicated in this paragraph c 1 i , toilet facilities, in toilet rooms separate for each sex, shall be provided in all places of employment in accordance with table J-1 of this section. The number of facilities to be provided for each sex shall be based on the number of employees of that sex for whom the facilities are furnished. Where toilet rooms will be occupied by no more than one person at a time, can be locked from the inside, and contain at least one water closet, separate toilet rooms for each sex need not be provided.
India: WASH Flip Book (Telugu Version)
Venkatashiva Reddy B, Yadlapalli S. Kusuma, Chandrakant S. Increased mortality is associated with poor household water, sanitation, and hygiene WaSH practices.
A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in four mandals in A total of households with under-five children were identified.
A summary WaSH score was generated from four specific indices, water, sanitation, hygiene, and hand washing practices, and determinants were identified. Open defecation was a commonly reported practice The median WaSH score was In the hierarchical stepwise multiple linear regression, only socioeconomic variables were significantly associated with WaSH score.
The tribal population groups of India are indigenous people of the land. Tribals are often referred to as adivasi, vanyajati, vanvasi, pahari, adimjati, and anusuchit jan jati, the latter being the constitutional term [ 1 ]. Tribal groups, as is also true for other population groups, are at different stages of social, economic, and educational development. While some tribal communities have integrated and adopted a mainstream way of life, at the other end of the spectrum, tribes are characterized by a preagriculture level of technology, a stagnant or declining population, extremely low literacy, and a subsistence level of economy [ 2 ].
The Sugali Tribe of Andhra Pradesh represents one such tribe whose members were originally nomads but have now settled into some sort of a permanent settlement. Many Indian tribes lived in the remote hilly forest areas and remained isolated, untouched by civilization.
As a result, they were largely unaffected by the developmental processes going on in the rest of the state. Therefore, these groups remained backward, particularly in health, education, and socioeconomic aspects [ 4 ]. However, over a period, many of these tribes have gradually integrated into the rest of the society.
This process of integration presents another set of challenges. This integration could result in some acculturation with a mix of traditional beliefs with modern beliefs resulting in changes in practices and customs.
Children would be affected most by these changes, not only because they are a vulnerable group, but also because many of the beliefs which undergo a change are related to childbirth and child rearing [ 5 ]. Early childhood is the most important phase for overall development throughout the lifespan. More than half of these early child deaths were due to conditions that could be prevented or treated with access to simple, affordable interventions.
Leading causes of death in the world in under-five children are pneumonia, diarrhea, and malnutrition. About one-third of all deaths of children are linked to malnutrition [ 6 ]. A significant proportion of deaths can be prevented through safe drinking water, adequate sanitation, hygiene, immunization, proper infant feeding, and enabling environments [ 7 ].
Therefore, interventions in the first five years of life can have a significant impact on the prevention of childhood morbidity and mortality [ 8 ]. The water, sanitation, and hygiene WaSH practices in India are documented [ 9 — 11 ]; there is still a paucity of studies from the tribal population.
This was a cross-sectional community-based study conducted in Madanapalle revenue division of Chittoor district in Andhra Pradesh from to Four mandals administrative units in a district with a high proportion of the Sugali population were selected. All thandas Sugali settlements are known as thandas and are usually located at one end of the village and urban settlements inhabited by the Sugalis were included.
Most of the urban settlements had a single ethnicity in nature. The sample size was calculated considering the point prevalence of ARI among under-five children as Since the population of this tribe was small, all households were visited.
As we wanted to study water, sanitation, and hygiene practices with respect to under-five children, households with at least one under-five child were included in the study. The youngest under-five child was studied if more than one was present.
A house-to-house survey was conducted in each of the selected thandas. A semistructured pretested interview schedule was used to collect information from the mother. In some cases if the mother was not available or in case of orphaned children , information was collected from the caregiver. The questionnaire was pretested before starting the study. There were 27 open-ended questions to study demographic details of the patients and water, sanitation, and hygiene practices for under-five children in the study population.
This was translated into the local language which was then back translated to English to check the validity of translation. All interviews were conducted in the local language by the first author VB , who is fluent in Telugu. Each interview took about 30—40 minutes. Necessary permissions were taken from the Chittoor district administration for conducting the study. A summary WaSH score was generated as shown in Table 1.
Wherever applicable, proportions and mean SD were calculated. The hierarchical stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was utilized to identify key demographic, socioeconomic, and housing determinants of WaSH score. A total of children were studied. The demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the study population are shown in Table 2. Over Nearly three-quarters Open defecation was commonly reported Latrine use was only 4.
Around Less than two-thirds Merely one-third Soap was used when hands were thought to be dirty. The hand wash score was more than 9 in In fact, about half of them reported doing this twice a day.
Most of the children were reported to brush their teeth at least once a day, usually with a toothbrush and paste. The first quartile of WaSH score was 14, and the third quartile was The median WaSH score was 15 Figure 1. In the hierarchical stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, child demographic factors Block 1, Table 4 explained 0. Socioeconomic variables Block 2, Table 4 explained an additional nearly Altogether, the final model explained The most important way to reduce the spread of infections among children is clean water, basic toilets, and good hygiene practices.
In the present study, the major source of drinking water among the study population was public taps. This was lower compared to DLHS Households with an improved drinking water source in Andhra Pradesh were Though nearly three-fourth of the study households cleaned the water storing utensils daily, majority of the households did not do anything for making water safe to drink.
A community-based cross-sectional study in rural Kerala among mothers of under-five children found that nearly Without the basic water storage and retrieval practices, the lives of children of Sugali Tribes are at risk of water and sanitation related diseases leading to mortality. Majority Around half of the mothers used to leave stools of their under-three children uncovered.
The situation among the tribal population seems to be worse as compared to the whole of Chittoor district as per the DLHS-3 findings that In Andhra Pradesh, The proportion of households practicing open field defecation was very high compared to a study rural area of Chennai, which stated that around one-fourth of the study participants use community toilets, open defecation, or sharing of toilets [ 15 ].
This shows the recent integration of tribal communities into modern society. Less than two-thirds of the household members of the study used water and soap for cleaning dirty hands. Merely one-third of the household members of the study participants were using water and soap after defecation. The scarcity of water influences hand washing. Likely, a community-based cross-sectional study conducted in a rural area of Kerala among mothers of under-five children found better water and hygiene practices due to higher education status of mothers [ 16 ].
A cross-sectional study conducted in slums of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, among households, of children aged 6—59 months, stated that improved knowledge of caregivers was associated with higher odds of better child hygienic practices [ 20 ].
This might be primarily due to changes in traditional beliefs, attitude, and improved WaSH practices in them. Working and nonlaborer fathers had better WaSH practices. This could be mainly due to better child health care seeking decisions. The population has better practices in certain areas of WaSH like water storage, waste disposal, and child body hygiene, while not so high in the other.
This is because while WaSH is clubbed as one domain, it subsumes multiple domains like access to water supply and sanitation infrastructure, social customs and habits, and so forth.
Poor WaSH mainly included not washing hands with soap after defecation and before and after eating food, eating unwashed fruits and vegetables, open field defecation, and eating raw vegetables. Predisposing factors for poor WaSH were water scarcity, especially in summers, and lack of access to drinking water.
There are some limitations of this study. Study of WaSH practices was based on a report by the informant and some degree of recall bias cannot be ruled out [ 22 ]. For a better understanding of behavior, which especially focuses on WaSH practices of a tribal population, one needs a qualitative study, which was beyond the scope of this study.
Water, sanitation, and hygiene practices are one of the largest causes of morbidity and mortality in children. The present study found a need for improvement in WaSH practices of the people of Sugali Tribes, especially those related to the use of sanitary latrines, hand washing, and water treatment practices.
Better integration into the society with a subsequent increase in access to sanitation infrastructure, economic schemes, and educational interventions is necessary for further improvements. A community-based intervention program needs to be carried out to educate the tribal people about appropriate water storage and retrieval methods and sanitation and hand washing practices.
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
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PDF | On Feb 14, , Nasreen Banu and others published Four pillars of Sanitation in telugu | Find, read and cite all the research you need on Public Full-text 1. Content Reproductive Health care in Agrarian families.
Wrote the first draft of the paper: DM. The article was jointly written by all the named authors. In the past, government agencies have typically built sanitation infrastructure, but sanitation professionals are now concentrating on helping people to improve their own sanitation and to change their behaviour. Improved sanitation has significant impacts not only on health, but on social and economic development, particularly in developing countries. The health sector has a strong role to play in improving sanitation in developing countries through policy development and the implementation of sanitation programmes.
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Screen Reader Access. The committee has been formed to take collective actions on issues related to health and its social determinants at the village level. Thus the committee is envisaged to take leadership in providing a platform for improving health awareness and access of community for health services, address specific local needs and serve as a mechanism for community based planning and monitoring. The committee is formed at the revenue village level and it should act as a sub-committee of the Gram Panchayat. ASHA residing in the village shall be the member secretary and convener of the committee. Roles and Responsibilities.
This programme focussed mainly on providing subsidies to people to construct sanitation facilities. However, a study done by the government in showed that it was more important to raise awareness about sanitation as a whole rather than to just provide subsidies for construction. This understanding marked the first shift in the programme. In , a restructured Total Sanitation Campaign TSC was initiated to create supply-led sanitation by promoting local sanitary marts and a range of technological options. The last modification of the scheme happened in
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage. Sanitation systems aim to protect human health by providing a clean environment that will stop the transmission of disease , especially through the fecal—oral route. A range of sanitation technologies and approaches exists. Some examples are community-led total sanitation , container-based sanitation , ecological sanitation , emergency sanitation , environmental sanitation, onsite sanitation and sustainable sanitation. A sanitation system includes the capture, storage, transport, treatment and disposal or reuse of human excreta and wastewater. This is referred to as the "sanitation value chain" or "sanitation economy". Several sanitation "levels" are being used to compare sanitation service levels within countries or across countries.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage. Preventing.
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Venkatashiva Reddy B, Yadlapalli S. Kusuma, Chandrakant S. Increased mortality is associated with poor household water, sanitation, and hygiene WaSH practices. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in four mandals in A total of households with under-five children were identified.
Public health , the art and science of preventing disease , prolonging life, and promoting physical and mental health , sanitation, personal hygiene, control of infectious diseases , and organization of health services. From the normal human interactions involved in dealing with the many problems of social life, there has emerged a recognition of the importance of community action in the promotion of health and the prevention and treatment of disease, and this is expressed in the concept of public health. Comparable terms for public health medicine are social medicine and community medicine ; the latter has been widely adopted in the United Kingdom , and the practitioners are called community physicians. The practice of public health draws heavily on medical science and philosophy and concentrates especially on manipulating and controlling the environment for the benefit of the public. It is concerned therefore with housing, water supplies, and food.
Профессионализм Хейла достиг высокого уровня, и у него появились знакомые среди интернет-пользователей по всему миру. Он был представителем новой породы киберпсихов и общался с такими же ненормальными в других странах, посещая непристойные сайты и просиживая в европейских чатах. Его дважды увольняли за использование счета фирмы для рассылки порнографических снимков своим дружкам. - Что ты здесь делаешь? - спросил Хейл, остановившись в дверях и с недоумением глядя на Сьюзан. Скорее всего он надеялся, что никого не застанет в Третьем узле.
Даже если Цифровая крепость станет общедоступной, большинство пользователей из соображений удобства будут продолжать пользоваться старыми программами. Зачем им переходить на Цифровую крепость.
Сколько угодно, - улыбнулась женщина. - Самолет улетел почти пустой. Но завтра в восемь утра тоже есть… - Мне нужно узнать, улетела ли этим рейсом моя подруга. Она собиралась купить билет прямо перед вылетом.
Наверное, эта женщина - ангел. Она прилетела за. Ангел заговорил: - Дэвид, я люблю. Внезапно он все понял. Сьюзан на экране тянулась к нему, плача и смеясь, захлестнутая волной эмоций.
Чем могу служить.
Если бы ему удалось затеряться в центральной части города, у него был бы шанс спастись. Спидометр показывал 60 миль в час. До поворота еще минуты две. Он знал, что этого времени у него. Сзади его нагоняло такси.
Он обратил внимание, что сегодня взгляд ее карих глаз казался отсутствующим, но на щеках играл свежий румянец, а рыжеватые до плеч волосы были только что высушены. От нее исходил легкий аромат присыпки Джонсонс беби. Его взгляд скользнул по стройной фигурке, задержался на белой блузке с едва различимым под ней бюстгальтером, на юбке до колен цвета хаки и, наконец, на ее ногах… ногах Сьюзан Флетчер.
По мере того как они удалялись от двери, свет становился все более тусклым, и вскоре они оказались в полной темноте. Единственным освещением в шифровалке был разве что свет звезд над их головами, едва уловимое свечение проникало также сквозь разбитую стеклянную стену Третьего узла. Стратмор шагнул вперед, нащупывая ногой место, где начинались ступеньки узенькой лестницы. Переложив берет-ту в левую руку, правой он взялся за перила.
Тот, что вызвал скорую. Он болтал что-то на ужаснейшем испанском, который мне только доводилось слышать. - Он сказал, что на руке у мистера Танкадо было кольцо. Офицер кивнул, достал из пачки Дукадо сигарету, посмотрел на плакат с надписью No fumar - Не курить - и все же закурил. - Наверное, я должен был обратить на это внимание, но тот тип показался мне настоящим психом.
- Сьюзан нахмурилась. - Итак, вы полагаете, что Северная Дакота - реальное лицо. - Боюсь, что. И мы должны его найти.
Он бывал в Университете Досися и использовал их главный компьютер. Очевидно, там у него был адрес, который он сумел утаить. Это хорошо защищенный почтовый ящик, и мне лишь случайно удалось на него наткнуться. - Он выдержал паузу. - Итак, если Танкадо хотел, чтобы мы обнаружили его почту, зачем ему понадобился секретный адрес.
Мы погибли, - прошептала Мидж. - Подождите, - сказала Сьюзан.