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The following resources have been reviewed and selected as the best tools and curriculum for school IPM. This page contains links to hands-on resources like audit sheets and inspection manuals as well as curriculum and fact sheets for educating students, school staff and pest management professionals.

Insecticide , any toxic substance that is used to kill insects. Such substances are used primarily to control pests that infest cultivated plants or to eliminate disease-carrying insects in specific areas.

The impact of pesticides consists of the effects of pesticides on non-target species. Pesticides are chemical preparations used to kill fungal or animal pests. Other problems emerge from poor production, transport and storage practices.

Environmental impact of pesticides

Insecticide , any toxic substance that is used to kill insects. Such substances are used primarily to control pests that infest cultivated plants or to eliminate disease-carrying insects in specific areas.

Insecticides can be classified in any of several ways, on the basis of their chemistry, their toxicological action, or their mode of penetration.

In the latter scheme, they are classified according to whether they take effect upon ingestion stomach poisons , inhalation fumigants , or upon penetration of the body covering contact poisons.

Most synthetic insecticides penetrate by all three of these pathways, however, and hence are better distinguished from each other by their basic chemistry. Besides the synthetics , some organic compounds occurring naturally in plants are useful insecticides, as are some inorganic compounds; some of these are permitted in organic farming applications. Most insecticides are sprayed or dusted onto plants and other surfaces traversed or fed upon by insects.

Stomach poisons are toxic only if ingested through the mouth and are most useful against those insects that have biting or chewing mouth parts, such as caterpillars , beetles, and grasshoppers.

The chief stomach poisons are the arsenicals —e. They are applied as sprays or dusts onto the leaves and stems of plants eaten by the target insects. Stomach poisons have gradually been replaced by synthetic insecticides, which are less dangerous to humans and other mammals.

Contact poisons penetrate the skin of the pest and are used against those arthropods , such as aphids , that pierce the surface of a plant and suck out the juices. The contact insecticides can be divided into two main groups: naturally occurring compounds and synthetic organic ones.

The naturally occurring contact insecticides include nicotine , developed from tobacco ; pyrethrum , obtained from flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and Tanacetum coccineum ; rotenone, from the roots of Derris species and related plants; and oils, from petroleum. Though these compounds were originally derived mainly from plant extracts, the toxic agents of some of them e. Natural insecticides are usually short-lived on plants and cannot provide protection against prolonged invasions.

Except for pyrethrum, they have largely been replaced by newer synthetic organic insecticides. Fumigants are toxic compounds that enter the respiratory system of the insect through its spiracles , or breathing openings. They include such chemicals as hydrogen cyanide , naphthalene , nicotine, and methyl bromide and are used mainly for killing insect pests of stored products or for fumigating nursery stock. The synthetic contact insecticides are now the primary agents of insect control.

In general they penetrate insects readily and are toxic to a wide range of species. The main synthetic groups are the chlorinated hydrocarbons, organic phosphates organophosphates , and carbamates. The chlorinated hydrocarbons were developed beginning in the s after the discovery of the insecticidal properties of DDT.

Other examples of this series are BHC , lindane, Chlorobenzilate, methoxychlor , and the cyclodienes which include aldrin , dieldrin , chlordane , heptachlor , and endrin. Some of these compounds are quite stable and have a long residual action; they are, therefore, particularly valuable where protection is required for long periods. Their toxic action is not fully understood, but they are known to disrupt the nervous system. A number of these insecticides have been banned for their deleterious effects on the environment.

The organophosphates are now the largest and most versatile class of insecticides. Two widely used compounds in this class are parathion and malathion; others are Diazinon, naled, methyl parathion, and dichlorvos. They are especially effective against sucking insects such as aphids and mites, which feed on plant juices. The organophosphates usually have little residual action and are important, therefore, where residual tolerances limit the choice of insecticides.

They are generally much more toxic than the chlorinated hydrocarbons. Organophosphates kill insects by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase, which is essential in the functioning of the nervous system. The carbamates are a group of insecticides that includes such compounds as carbamyl, methomyl, and carbofuran.

They are rapidly detoxified and eliminated from animal tissues. Their toxicity is thought to arise from a mechanism somewhat similar to that for the organophosphates. The advent of synthetic insecticides in the midth century made the control of insects and other arthropod pests much more effective, and such chemicals remain essential in modern agriculture despite their environmental drawbacks.

By preventing crop losses, raising the quality of produce, and lowering the cost of farming, modern insecticides increased crop yields by as much as 50 percent in some regions of the world in the period — They have also been important in improving the health of both humans and domestic animals; malaria , yellow fever , and typhus , among other infectious diseases, have been greatly reduced in many areas of the world through their use.

But the use of insecticides has also resulted in several serious problems, chief among them environmental contamination and the development of resistance in pest species. Because insecticides are poisonous compounds, they may adversely affect other organisms besides harmful insects.

The accumulation of some insecticides in the environment can in fact pose a serious threat to both wildlife and humans. Many insecticides are short-lived or are metabolized by the animals that ingest them, but some are persistent, and when applied in large amounts they pervade the environment.

When an insecticide is applied, much of it reaches the soil , and groundwater can become contaminated from direct application or runoff from treated areas. Owing to repeated sprayings, these chemicals can accumulate in soils in surprisingly large amounts 10— kilograms per hectare [10— pounds per acre] , and their effect on wildlife is greatly increased as they become associated with food chains.

The stability of DDT and its relatives leads to their accumulation in the bodily tissues of insects that constitute the diet of other animals higher up the food chain , with toxic effects on the latter. Birds of prey such as eagles , hawks , and falcons are usually most severely affected, and serious declines in their populations have been traced to the effects of DDT and its relatives.

Consequently, the use of such chemicals began to be restricted in the s and banned outright in the s in many countries. Cases of insecticide poisoning of humans also occur occasionally, and the use of one common organophosphate, parathion , was drastically curtailed in the United States in owing to its toxic effects on farm labourers who were directly exposed to it.

Another problem with insecticides is the tendency of some target insect populations to develop resistance as their susceptible members are killed off and those resistant strains that survive multiply, eventually perhaps to form a majority of the population. Resistance denotes a formerly susceptible insect population that can no longer be controlled by a pesticide at normally recommended rates. Hundreds of species of harmful insects have acquired resistance to different synthetic organic pesticides, and strains that become resistant to one insecticide may also be resistant to a second that has a similar mode of action to the first.

Once resistance has developed, it tends to persist in the absence of the pesticide for varying amounts of time, depending on the type of resistance and the species of pest. Insecticides may also encourage the growth of harmful insect populations by eliminating the natural enemies that previously held them in check.

The nonspecific nature of broad-spectrum chemicals makes them more likely to have such unintended effects on the abundance of both harmful and beneficial insects. Because of the problems associated with the heavy use of some chemical insecticides, current insect-control practice combines their use with biological methods in an approach called integrated control.

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Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms , many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used regarding toxicity and persistence , and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied.

Pests and Pest Control. How does an organism become labeled as a pest species? Pest control: winning the battles but losing the war. Smarter Pesticides? Pesticide Use in the United States. Chemical pesticides lose effectiveness Resistant pest populations produce next generations Resistance to Pesticides.

Copy embed code:. Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed. WordPress Embed Customize Embed. URL: Copy. Presentation Description No description available. PEST: Any organism that damages crops, injures or irritates livestock or man, or reduces the fertility of land.

UNIT 1: Principles of Pest Control

Extension Pesticide Program. Host - A plant or animal on or in which a pest lives. Juvenile hormones - Natural insect chemicals that keep the earlier stages of an insect from changing into the normal adult form. Labeling - The pesticide product label and other accompanying materials that contain directions that pesticide users are legally required to follow Mycoplasmas - The smallest known living organisms that can reproduce and exist apart from other living organisms.

Pesticides are commonly used, but this may cause many problems. Combining different management operations is the most effective way to control pest.

The Pest Defense for Healthy Schools Online IPM Training for School Employees

The term pesticide covers a wide range of compounds including insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, molluscicides, nematicides, plant growth regulators and others. Among these, organochlorine OC insecticides, used successfully in controlling a number of diseases, such as malaria and typhus, were banned or restricted after the s in most of the technologically advanced countries. The introduction of other synthetic insecticides — organophosphate OP insecticides in the s, carbamates in s and pyrethroids in s and the introduction of herbicides and fungicides in the s—s contributed greatly to pest control and agricultural output. Ideally a pesticide must be lethal to the targeted pests, but not to non-target species, including man. Unfortunately, this is not the case, so the controversy of use and abuse of pesticides has surfaced. The production of pesticides started in India in with the establishment of a plant for the production of BHC near Calcutta, and India is now the second largest manufacturer of pesticides in Asia after China and ranks twelfth globally Mathur,

They'll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated look that today's audiences expect. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use. They are all artistically enhanced with visually stunning color, shadow and lighting effects. Classical biological control is long lasting and inexpensive. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. About 80 commercially produced beneficial insects and 20 approved biological agents are available to control diseases and pests. Biological Control 4.

Cultural methods of pest control consist of regular farm operations in such a way which either destroy the pests or prevent them from causing economic loss. The various cultural practices are as under. In this process regulatory rules framed by Govt. These are known as quarantine methods and are of two types i. Biological control of insect pests and diseases through biological means is most important component of IPM. In broader sense, biocontrol is use of living organisms to control unwanted living organisms pests. In other words, deliberate use of parasitoids, predators and pathogens to maintain pest population at level blow those causing economic loss either by introducing a new bioagent into the environment of pest or by increasing effectiveness of those already preset in the field.


GM crops as an alternative to using fertilisers and pesticides. Biological control.​pptx - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation .ppt /.pptx), PDF File .pdf).


biological pest control ppt

Pesticides can be grouped according to the types of pests which they kill: Insecticides - insects Herbicides - plants Rodenticides - rodents rats and mice Bactericides - bacteria Fungicides - fungi Larvicides - larvae Fig. For example, they can be grouped according to the chemicals in them or to the method of application. Insecticides kill insects by getting inside their bodies where they then act as poison. There are three different ways insecticides can get into an insect body. In insects, the skin is called the cuticle. Insecticides of this kind are called contact poisons.

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  1. Gildo R.

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  2. Piamantnicsver

    Chemicals to kill organisms we consider undesirable. Page 5. Types of pesticides. • Insecticides - insects. • Herbicides - weeds. • Fungicides - fungus. •.

  3. Pascaline C.

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